The Role of the Investigation
The first phase, investigation is the most significant. What problem is the system being developed to solve? During investigation phase, objectives, constraints and scope of project are specified and preliminary cost benefit analysis is developed to evaluate perceived benefits and the suitable levels of cost for those benefits. At the end, feasibility analysis is done to assess technical, and behavioral feasibilities of process.
The steps involved in this analysis.
1. Define the problem.
2. Data collection - On organization, employees, work, and work environment.
Begin with the existing information company library, systems documentation.
Tips for Interviews
• be prepared, write the objectives, make appointments, and be punctual.
• avoid interruptions, be a good listener, and understand what is said.
• be non committal, take brief notes
• Face-to-face, adaptive, flexible, informative.
• time consuming.
• Different types of questionnaires are such as fill in blanks, and multiple choices.
• It is economical
• Difficult to prepare, everyone does not respond, results may or may not be reliable and valid.
• Study the flow of work through office. Experience is required to know when and what to look for, and to organize data flow diagrams.
• it is highly valid, first hand information.
• Inconvenient tasks.
Prepare report comprising of: Statement of scope and objectives, data flow diagrams, identification of system inputs and outputs.
The analysis phase starts with the information gained during investigation phase. This phase consists of assessments of organization, current systems status, and capability to support proposed systems. Analysts determine that which new system is expected to do and how it will interact with the existing systems. This phase terminates with the documentation of findings and update of feasibility analysis. That is given as follows,
1. Technical Feasibility?
Can it be done with the existing technology?
2. Economic Feasibility?
Will the cost be offset by benefits?
3. Operational Feasibility?
Will it work in organization?
Generally the roles of the systems analyst are:
• To analyze business systems having problems and to design new or modify systems to solve problems.
• To develop systems to meet new requirements.
• To prepare and maintain the manuals to communicate company policies and procedures.
• To design business forms for distributing and collecting information.
• To perform records management (Distribution and use of reports.)
• To participate in selection of information processing which is equipment and to establish standards for the equipment selection.
• To organize and maintain business organization charts.
In the logical design phase, all functional features of chosen system in analysis are described independently of any computer platform. The information gained from analysis phase is used to start creating a system solution for the business problem.
Logical Design Tasks
•Design how system appear to users, input & outputs
•Design how users interact with system (user interfaces and dialogues)
•Use prototyping approach
During physical design phase, specific technologies are selected to support alternatives identified and evaluated in logical design. The selected components are evaluated on make or buy decision. The other feasibility analysis should perform for whole solution presented to end user representatives for the approval of organization.\
In implementation phase, any required software created. The components are ordered, received, assembled, and tested. After wards users are trained and documentation created. Again a feasibility analysis prepared for the users presented with system for the performance review and acceptance test.
Maintenance and Change
This phase consists of tasks essential to support and modify system for remainder of its useful life. Even though formal development can conclude during this phase, life cycle continues until the process starts again from investigation phase. When current system cannot support any more the organization’s mission, a new project has to be implemented.