Synthetic petrol, Biology

Petrol or gasoline can be synthesized by following three methods:

1.      Polymerisation

2.      Fischer - tropsch method

3.      Bergius process

polymerisation

In this method, smaller molecules of hydrocarbons are combined to form heavier molecule resembling gasoline.

 

 

1369_polymerisation.png

There are two types of polymerisation.

(a)   Thermal polymerization: thermal polymerisation is carried out at temperature about 500-6000C  and pressure about 70-350 kg/cm2  .

(b)   Catalytic polymerization: it is carried out at a lower temperature of 150-2000C, in a low-pressure and in presence of catalyst like phosphoric acid. The rate of reaction is increased. The gasoline obtained is of improved quality and possess high antiknock properties than the gasoline obtained from thermal polymerisation process.   

1.15.2 Fisher – tropsch method

It is a catalytic reduction of CO and H2 to get straight chain alkane and olefins.

A mixture of water gas (CO + H2) with excess of hydrogen is passed through the purification chamber. The lron oxide and mixture of Fe2O3 & Na2CO3 containing chambers removes the sulphur and sulphur compounds. The mixture after removal of sulphur and its compounds are forced to the catalyst chamber. Mixture of cobalt (100 part), thoria (5 parts), magnesia (8 parts) and kieselguhr (200 parts) acts as catalyst.

At a temperature of about 200-2500C , reaction takes place to form saturated and unsaturated hydrocabons. Reactions are exothermic

                            nCO + 2nH2             CnH2n + nH2O + heat

       nCO + (2n + 1) H2             CnH2n+2 + nH2O + heat        

The products are led to a cooler, where gasoline and heavy oil are obtained. Heavy oil can be further cracked to get gasoline.

1.15.3    berguis process

This process is used to convert low grade coals as bituminous coal and lignites into liquid and gaseous fuel by hydrogenating them in presence of catalyst (Ni or tin oleate).

In this process, the powdered coal is mixed with heavy oil and the catalyst (Sn or Ni oleate) heated with hydrogen for 1 1/2 hr at a temperature of 4500 C and pressure of 250 atm in the convertor. The gases are fed to condenser where crude oil is obtained. This crude oil is fractionated to get gasoline, middle oil and heavy oil. Heavy oil is recycled for forming paste, and middle oil is cracked to get gasoline.

Posted Date: 7/12/2012 5:32:11 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Synthetic petrol, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Synthetic petrol, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Synthetic petrol Discussions

Write discussion on Synthetic petrol
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Metals and Alloys in alloplastic implant materials Most of the dental implant systems are made of metals or their alloys. Currently commercially pure titanium and its alloy Ti-

Maximum and minimum range of an animal with the factors of Ph Salinity Pressure Relative human

what do our brain and heart do when we are asleep?

Healthy human female X is 25 years old and not pregnant.  During the postovulatory phase of X's menstrual cycle,   A.  there are high blood plasma levels of LH and FSH.

Biological mechanisms Annual rhythm. Innate behaviour pattern stimulated by environmental cues (shortened day length is the cue for preparation - candidates should exp

What are the uses of squid fins? Fins are used by squids to move at low speeds. Their siphon is used when they require moving quickly.


Competence of Larval Tissue or Multiple Responses The responsiveness of different larval tissues to thyroxine is markedly different. The tissues of the tail becomes necrotic

Define Pre-Exercise or Pre-Event Meal for athletes? Suitable foods in adequate quantities at all times should be consumed but before the event, strategies to fuel up the energ

What is the inactivation of the X chromosome? What is a Barr body? Inactivation of the X chromosome is a phenomenon that happens in women. As women have two X chromosomes only