Koguryo one of the 3 kingdoms in 1~7th century. In the North.
Paekche resurgence of power in 660CE. In the West.
Silla in the South. Silla looked towards Northern neighbor for help. Didn't get any, turned reluctantly to Tang China. Reluctance because Korea had experience occupation of Han Chniense that set up different commandaries.
Tang-Silla Alliance Tang imperialist ambition in Korea-pretended to help Korea and planted puppet rulers.
"Protectorate-General to Pacify the East" Pince movement: set a puppet government in Korea, established military movement. Was an imposing threat to Koguryo and Paekche. .
King Munmu ouster of Tang forces in 676. Did not cut off ties with China, but improved it. Pivotal year, provided security and prosperity that would last for at least 700 years. Developed culture, etc. gave Silla the legitimacy of dealing with the Tang as a legitimate power. Vassel state. In theory, Silla accepted its role as a tributary state of China.
Tributary relations with Tang Trade with China: link to cosmopolitan network of Eurasia. Connection to luxury goods like silk. Muslims came on silkroad. Directly exposed Korean students to Chinese working bureaucracy.
Chipsabu bureaucracy office of the Chancellary, capital at Kyongju. People consisted of highest elite, members of the bone rank. Now it includes more people from the head rank 6th: lower than bone rank but still nobles. Radical shift from elitist to lower class.
Secondary capitals new form of centralized monarchy. Secondary capitals to keep local nobles under control. Purpose was to keep an eye on them, that they don't engage in subversive activities.
Bone-rank vs. Head-rank headwork was the nobility. Like in Rome how Augustus came to power: imperial household. Looked to commoners. Bypassed traditional sources of power. With centralization, comes an appeal/fear of traditional aristocracy.
Monarch as chakravartin (Sanskrit) "The turner of the Wheel of Dharma." King must protect and promote Buddhist teaching. In return the Buddhist teaching will provide stability and legitimacy, and protect the state. Compared to Caesaropapism. Building temples, sending monks to China. Bulkuksa as "Buddhist nation temple" 8th century. Built in distinct Korean style.
Sukkuram Perfect symmetry. Served as protection for royal ancestors.
"Cosmopolitan credentials" Temples gave Silla state Cosmopolitan Credentials. Once isolated peninsula, became cosmopolitan through vehicles of Buddhism.
Hyecho's pilgrimage 704-787. He went on to India and described his pilgrimage. His pilgrimage to India bypassed Chinese influence - created a larger cosmopolitan world.