Short sales :
Short sales of a security means borrowing of an underlying security by an investor from other investors who are holding it (in Demat account) and selling it with the understanding that at some point in future the prices of security will move down. During that period the short seller will buy the security and return it to genuine holder, thereby "covering" the short and gaining from the declined prices of security. The investors or short-term traders perform this activity based on some price sensitive information regarding security or sector, or based on personal knowledge regarding movement of security and belief that the security's value will decline in future. In the hope of earning profits he sells on high to buy on low later based on analyzed lower price the security will reach. Hedge Funds and Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) are leaders in employing such kind of trading activities to gain from short-term movement of the security prices. Though derivative instruments are available for short selling without holding or borrowing from others, they should be existing in the market for the underlying security in which the short seller is interested.
The trades of all the members in all the securities in Compulsory Rolling Settlement (CRS) are now settled by payment of money and delivery of securities on T + n basis. All deliveries of securities are required to be routed through the Clearing House, except for certain off-market transactions which although required to be reported to the Exchange, may be settled directly between the members concerned.