The idea of reference counting is to maintain, for every object, the total number of references to that object, i.e. the number of "incoming" pointers. Whenever the number of references is zero we know that the object is not accessible through any pointers, and thus it is garbage. Also, whenever we choose to delete some useless object,we have to recursively check that object to see if it contains pointers to other objects; if so, we have decrement the reference counters for those objects as well. One problem of reference counting, though, is how to deal with cycles. Suppose object A points to B, and B points to A. If these objects can only be reached through each other, we have to free them too, even though their counters are not zero! Note that cycles can common inmany data structures; for example, consider a doubly-linked list. The commonly adopted solution to this problem is to run mark-sweep now and then, in order to remove cyclic references, and then run normal reference counting on the rest of the time.