Pulmonary ventilation, Biology

Pulmonary Ventilation:
Pulmonary ventilation is the process by which gasses flow between the atmosphere and lung alveoli. Air moves into the  lungs when air pressure  inside the lungs is less than  the  air pressure in the atmosphere and out of  the lungs when  the pressure inside the lungs is greater than the atmosphere pressure. Breathing  in  is called inhalation or inspiration. Just before each inhalation air pressure inside the  alveoli is equal to the atmospheric pressures, 760 rnmHg,  and the intrapleural pressure is 756 mmHg. With  inspiration, the cavity of the thorax is enlarged as external intercostals muscles  and the diaphragm contract causing a decrease in  the  intrapleural pressure to about 754 mmHg. The parietal pleura lining the cavity is pulled outward in all direction and the visceral pleura and lungs are pulled along with  it. As  the  lung volume increases in this way  the pressure inside the lungs i.e.  760 mmHg drops to 758 mmHg. Thus a pressure difference  is established between the atmosphere and alveoli and air flows into the  lungs from the atmosphere. Breathing out or exhalation (expiration) starts when the  inspiratory muscles and diaphragm relaxes,  the dome of the diaphragm moves up, the ribs are depressed leading  to decrease in the  lung volume and increase in  the lung pressure (763 rnm Hg). Air flows out form the area of higher pressure to the area of lower pressure  in  the atmosphere. The elastic recoil  of the chest wall and the lungs is due to  the recoil of elastic fibers and the inward pull of surface tension due to  the alveolar fluid. A thin  layer of alveolar fluid coats the  surface of the alveoli and exerts a  force known as surface tension. Exhalation is a passive process while inhalation or  inspiration  is an active process.

 

Posted Date: 10/27/2012 7:56:40 AM | Location : United States







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