The fair trade movement can be understood as an NGO effort to establish a market outside of mainstream commodity monopolies while simultaneously inserting non-market concerns for justice into commodity trade relations. This movement tries to use rather than reject the market as an avenue of social change by assuring producers a stable price in a wildly fluctuating market that has typically shown little regard for their livelihood. Fair trade's global network, focused on building more equitable trading relationships, includes producers, traders, marketers, advocates and consumers. We have examined one aspect of the fair trade movement - that of fair trade coffee. Your paper will examine two questions: 1) What is the goal of the fair trade coffee movement and to what extent do you think it is able to achieve it? and 2) Does a universal certification label for all fair trade coffee further or hinder the cause of fair trade? Begin your critique by using the six characteristics of bureaucracy or formal organizations listed in your text to critically assess the processes, purpose and outcomes of formal certification of fair trade coffee (i.e. Fairtrade Labelling Organization (FLO) - what characteristics of bureaucracy are at work in the certification process and what would you say is their effect [both positive and negative]? who is involved? who has the power to make decisions? etc.). Then, taking into account the bureaucratic processes involved in certified fair trade discuss the extent to which you believe certification helps or hinders the fair trade cause. You must locate a case study on fair trade coffee that you can use to back up the claims or refutations you make in Questions 1 & 2.