Customer Service Chat
Get quote & make Payment
Plasticity and different forms of plasticity, Science
The functional organization of the human brain—for instance that the temporal lobe processes auditory and occipital cortex visual information—is largely not hard-wired, unlike in some other species. Rather, the functional organization of the brain that we see in neuroimaging studies, or that which is reflected in the effects of focal brain damage, reflects the way that the brain has adapted to the environmental demands and tasks of the individual that for the most part stay fairly constant throughout the life. Indeed, it can be argued that functional organization of the brain is the end result of an adaptive process, reflecting all of the skills that one has learned to best cope with one’s environment. Consequently, as long as the environment and the tasks and goals of the individual stay the same also the functional organization of the brain remains stable.
Upon changes in the environment, however, such as when moving to another country with entirely different culture and language, changes in the sensory inputs to the brain (that occurs when one of the senses is damaged such as blindness or deafness), or when the functional neuronal networks are themselves altered by for example stroke or some other type of brain damage, there is a sudden need for the brain to re-adapt. As the result of this, there are changes in the functional organization of the brain, with some of these changes occurring surprisingly quickly, in a matter of minutes, and some changes taking place over more extended periods of days, weeks, and months. In some cases these changes are extensive, and in some other cases they are rather subtle. These adaptive changes in functional brain organization are called plasticity. There are multiple forms of plasticity that occur in the brain
There are different forms of plasticity
Different forms of plasticity can be defined based on the reason why re-adaptation is required and by the developmental stage—whether it is a developing brain or an adult brain that is learning or re-learning. Indeed, the developing brain is far more plastic than the adult brain. Developmental plasticity refers to the rapid functional organization that occurs when the developing nervous system starts to adapt to it’s environment, for instance, there are specific periods, called sensitive periods, during which acquiring certain skills such as language is easier than during other times.
Another class of plasticity studies have focused on characterizing robust reorganization in the functional architecture of the brain upon loosing sensory input due to, for instance, blindness, deafness, or loosing of a limb. This is also called activity-dependent plasticity, as the stimulus-related activity changes drastically. A third type of plasticity studies were introduced– perceptual or sensory learning, such as when learning to discriminate the phonemes of a foreign language, is made possible by very fine functional reorganization that takes place in the sensory cortices.
There is also a vast body of literature describing plasticity that follows damage to the neural networks themselves. Following brain damage, the challenge faced by the nervous system is to re-adapt with the remaining neural tissue to coping in the environment after previously learned skills and processing capacity are suddenly lost. In addition to these different types of long-lasting or even permanent plastic changes, rapid (or short-term) plasticity refers to functional re-organization that occurs very quickly, in a matter of seconds or minutes. As was already described in Chapter 6, short-term plasticity supports attentional filtering of task-relevant stimuli. What makes short-term plasticity especially interesting is that some of the rapid changes in neuronal tuning seem to linger, thus making perceptual/sensory learning possible. In the following, these different types of plasticity are described in more detail.
Posted Date: 7/7/2012 6:54:07 AM | Location : United States
Ask an Expert
Plasticity and different forms of plasticity, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Plasticity and different forms of plasticity, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Plasticity and different forms of plasticity Discussions
Write discussion on Plasticity and different forms of plasticity
Your posts are moderated
Write your message here..
Periodic table, why does the periodic table useful to scientist
why does the periodic table useful to scientist
Define transport of carbon dioxide combination with protein, Define the Tra...
Define the Transport of Carbon Dioxide in combination with protein Carbon dioxide forms a neutral carbamino compound with haemoglobin. It combines with the haemoglobin in the r
Explain the structure and functions of liver, Explain the Structure and Fun...
Explain the Structure and Functions of Liver The liver is enclosed in a thin capsule and is completely covered by a peritoneum. The liver is described as having four lobes. As
Explain the hyposecretion or hypothyroidism during infancy, Explain the Hyp...
Explain the Hyposecretion or Hypothyroidism during Infancy Decreased secretion of thyroid hormone results in the development of the condition known as cretinism. There is a lac
Arthropoda, structure and function of respiratory organs in arthropoda with...
structure and function of respiratory organs in arthropoda with diagram
The arctic circle lies at which latitudes, The Arctic Circle lies at which ...
The Arctic Circle lies at which latitudes: At (66 ½oSouth)
Asynchronous sequential logic The asynchronous sequential l, research on S...
research on Synchronouns sequential logic
Explain the hyperparathyroidism, Explain the Hyperparathyroidism Hyperp...
Explain the Hyperparathyroidism Hyperparathyroidism may occur due to a tumour in one or more of the parathyroid glands. In this condition, the calcium level of the blood increa
Cells, the structures that makes up a cell are called
the structures that makes up a cell are called
Determine the mechanical parameters of soil, Mechanical parameters Soil...
Mechanical parameters Soil is a heterogeneous mixture of organic matter, salts, metal oxides, water and air with silicates as dominant constituents of varying size and composit
Accounting Assignment Help
Economics Assignment Help
Finance Assignment Help
Statistics Assignment Help
Physics Assignment Help
Chemistry Assignment Help
Math Assignment Help
Biology Assignment Help
English Assignment Help
Management Assignment Help
Engineering Assignment Help
Programming Assignment Help
Computer Science Assignment Help
Why Us ?
~24x7 hrs Support
~Quality of Work
~Time on Delivery
~Privacy of Work
Human Resource Management
Literature Review Writing Help
Follow Us |
T & C
Copyright by ExpertsMind IT Educational Pvt. Ltd.