Networking protocols, Operating System

Modern networks are not implemented as a single piece of software; that would render the task of dealing with multiple technologies and manufacturers virtually impossible. The solution for this problem is to structure computer networks as stacks of different protocols. A protocol can be seen as a "language" in which two entities (computers, routers, etc) communicate with each other. Typically, one protocol is created to solve a predetermined set of networking tasks, such as being able to send ?xed-length messages, or guaranteeing message order, etc. The capability of a protocol to solve these tasks makes it a "black box" that can be used by protocols on the level immediately above; similarly, the protocol itself can make use of the capabilities provided by the protocol on the level immediately below. Thus, all modern networks are implemented as a stack of abstractions, all of which are implemented as composable protocols; we say that the layer N provides services to layer N+1 and uses the services from layer N-1.

As an example, consider the stack presented in Figure in this example we show how the HTTP protocol (or, similarly, SMTP and ssh) can be implemented using the services provided by the TCP protocol. Also, the TCP protocol is implemented using the services of the IP layer, which itself uses the services provided by the Ethernet layer. Notice that one advantage of this type of architecture is that if we were to build a new functionality (say, wireless connections, instead of Ethernet), it would suf?ce for us to implement this new layer and to guarantee that it provides, to the IP level, the same services that were once provided by the Ethernet level. Nowhere would we need to care about the details of TCP, HTTP, or, for that matter, any of the top-level protocols.

Posted Date: 3/13/2013 3:09:57 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Networking protocols, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Networking protocols, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Networking protocols Discussions

Write discussion on Networking protocols
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Q. In following Section we mentioned that disabling interrupts frequently could affect the system's clock. Describe why it could and how such effects could be minimized.

Q. How is the NTFS namespace planned? Explain. Answer: The NTFS namespace is prearranged as a hierarchy of directories where every directory uses a B+ tree data structure to


Problem 1. List out the conditions that result in Deadlock situations. Illustrate deadlock situation with a simple graphical notation Listing conditions for deadlock occu

What is page fault? In the computer storage technology a page fault is an exception which is raised by the memory management unit when a requested page isn't mapped in physical

Q. Presume that a system is in an unsafe state. Illustrate that it is possible for the processes to complete their execution without entering a deadlock state. Answer: An unsaf

Objectives 1.    Login to UNIX system and logout 2.    Learn features of the vi editor and to use online help (main pages).  Gain experience using them to create a document

Q. List three instances of deadlocks that aren't related to a computer system environment. Answer: Two cars passage a single-lane bridge from opposite directions.

problems of procedure

Q. We have stressed the require for an operating system to make efficient use of the computing hardware. When is it suitable for the operating system to forsake this principle and