Modern biology, Biology

Modern Biology

Increasing advancement in biotechnology has brought about a veritable explosion of Biological knowledge since early 1950s.This vast modern biological information has uncovered intimate details of Nature in respect of unity continuity and diversity of the Living world it has generated certain new biological concepts which are universally applicable to all organisms, binding these into a single heritage. These modern Unifying concepts of Virology are as follows:

1.      Concept of Organization: .According to this concept, all activities connected with life is based upon chemical and physical principles. Thus it implies that life resides not in the constituent atoms and molecules of protoplasm, but in its chemical organization. Hence when scientists have fully understood the physic chemical organization. of protoplasm they create live in the laboratory.

2.      Concept of Biogenesis: Scientists agree that the living matter protoplasm originated by gradual chemical evolution in the organization of nonliving matter ,but suitable environmental conditions necessary for such an evolution are not found upon present earth these existed upon primitive earth billions of years ago. Hence new organisms conform upon the present earth only from pre existing ones  Omnis vivo ex vivo

3.      Cell Theory: According to this theory, all organisms are formed of one or more structural and functional init masses of protoplasm called cells, and of cell products. Like organisms, new cells can form only from pre existing cells similar in structure, chemical organization and metabolism. The life of organisms is the sum tidal of the metabolism.  The life of am organism is the sum total of the metabolism of its body cells.

4.      Organic Evolution:  This is the greatest unifying concept of Modern Biology .It holds that none  of the more than 15lacs of known diverse types species of organisms, existing upon present earth, has originated independently by itself. All types have arisen from comparatively simpler and common ancestors in there mote past by accumulation of modifications through innumerable generations.

5.      Gene Theory: All organisms   possess ultramicroscopic particulate structures, called genes, which carry coded information's of characteristics from one to the next generation, thus acting as units of heredity or inheritance. Varied recombination of genes in members of future generations and chemical changed in the genes help evolution of newer species from older ones.

6.      Enzyme Theory: Thousands of chemical reactions occur very moment in each living cell under metabolism for them maintenance of its life. Normally, each reaction is catalyzed by an organic catalyst called enzyme

7.      Genie control of Characteristics Biochemical Genetics: Metabolic enzymes all proteins as well as the other proteins which are the main components of cell architecture, are synthesized in accordance with the coded dictates of genes. That is why, all structural and functional characteristics of a cell are gene controlled through synthesis of specific proteins. Thus this is the mechanism how genes transmit characteristics from one to the next generation .Accordingly George Beadle and Edward Tatum 1941 hypothesized  one gene one specific protein one structural or functional hereditary characteristic:

8.      Variable or Differential Gene Activity: All body cells of a multicellular organism arise by repeated mitotic divisions from, a single zygote cell. Hence all possess the same complement of genes .How then there is a division of labour amongst these cells how they distinguish structurally and functionally into varied types of cells of multicellular body .Modern scientists have discovered that in each particular type of cells of a multicellular body, only a specific part of the genotype is active; the rest is rendered inactive with the help of his tone proteins found in the chromosomes. Thus variable portions of the same genotype are functional in different cell types

9.      Organism, its Environment and Homeostasis: Since every organism has to vary regular chemical exchange with its immediate environment. it has to regularly react to the ever changing environmental conditions for maintaining the harmony functions of maintaining the constancy of internal environment was discovered by Claude Bernard 1860 and named homeostasis by Walter B. Cannon 1932.

Posted Date: 9/26/2012 4:22:24 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Modern biology, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Modern biology, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Modern biology Discussions

Write discussion on Modern biology
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Psychotropic Drugs - Act on brain and effect its normal functioning slow down and interphere in the functioning of the nervous system. These drugs alter behaviour, consciosn

Maedi/visna Maedi, a progressive pneumonia, and visna, a neurotropic disease, found in sheep and goats are caused by the Maedi/visna virus, belonging to the family Retroviridae

Explain Receptor Proteins These are built into the membrane of a nerve cell and they detect chemical signals released by other nerve cells. Receptor proteins are involved in

Explain the Stool weight and laxation? The amount of stool excreted varies markedly from individual to individual and in an individual over a period of time. Faeces are complex

Determine about the visual axes of eyes In normal eyes, the visual axes are parallel to each other in the primary position of gaze. This position is usually maintained but in t

Dfine Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)? The adolescent girl scheme under ICDS intends to cover school dropout girls, 11-18 years in age with a view to meet their ne

Explain Chemical Structure of saponins? Let us briefly understand their chemical nature. Their structures are characterized by the presence of a steroid or triterpene group, i.

Coxal Glands There is a pair of coxal glands, in almost all the segments in Onychophora (Peripatus). Developmentally; in every segment a hollow follicle or somite arises and i

Enzyme  Proteins   that act  as  catalysts, speeding the rate  at  which biochemical reactions proceed but not altering the direction or nature of the reactions.

In addition to parasternal and apical transducer position. Subcostal view also provides imaging window in adult patients. The patient is supine with knees flexed to relax the abd