Mean - median and frequencies, Basic Statistics

Put the appropriate summary statistics, e.g. mean, median, frequencies, percentages, for the different variables into a table to make them concise. You can see examples of consise summaries presented in tables in academic journal articles. Use appropriate graphical summaries to decide which summary statistics are appropriate, but do not include these graphical summaries in your submitted document.


Use appropriate statistical tests to investigate whether there are any associations (relationships) between vital status (whether or not the patient died) and the patient's characteristics (2a. age, 2b. tumour size (pathsize) 2c. histological grade, 2d. HRT use). For each of the four comparisons in turn (2a to 2d) with vital status answer the questions below using one or more properly constructed sentences to answer each question. Present the important summary information for each comparison and say what it might mean for the wider population of women with breast cancer. Answer all of the following questions for 2a age. Then answer them all for 2b, etc.

What are the null and alternative hypotheses? (They should be appropriate for the data type and the test that you are going to use.)

What test did you use to investigate whether this null hypothesis was true?

Why was this the correct test to use and what assumption(s), if any, did you need to make in order to use this test?

If assumptions were made, how did you check whether the assumptions were valid?

What was your conclusion about whether or not there was a statistically significant relationship?

Using important numbers from your computer output (means, standard deviations, medians, interquartile ranges, counts, proportions, percentages, differences between means, means of differences, confidence intervals and/or p-values, etc., as appropriate) to summarise the size and direction of the relationship found in the sample.

Make an inference for women with breast cancer in the wider population about any association between the variable being considered and the chance of dying within a similar follow-up period?

Did the age of the patients differ between the three histological grades? Check that all assumptions of your chosen method are valid and explain how you checked this.

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