Logic-based expert systems - artificial intelligence, Computer Engineering

Logic-based Expert Systems - Artificial intelligence:

Expert systems are agents which are programmed to make decisions about real world situations. They are put together by utilizing knowledge illicitation techniques to additional information from human experts. A specific fruitful area is in diagnosis of diseases, where expert systems are utilized to select what disease a patient has given their symptoms.

Expert systems are one of the major success stories of Artificial Intelligence. Russell and Norvig give a very nice example from medicine:

"A leading expert on lymph-node pathology describes a fiendishly hard case to the expert system, and checks the system's diagnosis. He scoffs at the response to the system. Only slightly worried, the creators of the system suggest he command the computer for an explanation of the diagnosis.In this casethe machine points out the main factors influencing its decision and explains the subtle interaction of many of the symptoms. Eventually, the experts admit his error."

Often,  the  instructions  from  the  expert  are  encoded  as  if-then  instruct  in  first-order  logic  and  the implementation of the expert system may be fairly simply achieved in a programming language such as Prolog.

We can take our card game from the previous chapter as an instance for the implementation of a logic-based expert system. The instructions were: 4 cards are laid on the table face up. The Player 1 selectsthe first card, and in turns, they take it till they both have two cards each. To see who has won, they each add their 2 card numbers, and the winner is the 1 with the biggest even number. The winner scores the even number they have. If there is no even number, or both players gain the same even number, then the game is draw.

It could be argued that undertaking a minimax search is not very essential for this game, because we could simply just specify a set of rules for each player, so that they select cards rationally., we will derive down some Prolog rules to demonstrate thiswhich specify how player one should select the first card.

For instance, imagine the cards dealt were: 4, 5, 6, 10. In this case, the best selection of action for player 1 is to choose the ten, followed presumably by the 4, because player 2 will pick the 6. We have to abstract from this particular example to the general case: we see that there were 3 even numbers and 1 odd one, so player 1 is guaranteed another even number to match the one they chose. This is also true if there are 4 even numbers. So we have our first rule:

  • If there are 3 or 4 even numbered cards, then player one should choose the highest even numbered card in their first go.

When there are 3 or 4 odd cards it is not hard to see that the most rational action for player one is to select the highest odd numbered card:

  • If there are 3 or 4 odd numbered cards, then player 1 should select the highest odd numbered card in their first go.

The only other situation is when there are 2 even and 2 odd cards. I will leave it as an exercise to convince you that there are no instructions governing the choice of player one's first card: they can simply choose randomly, because they are not going to win unless player two makes a mistake, inthis type of case.

Posted Date: 10/2/2012 7:23:17 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Logic-based expert systems - artificial intelligence, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Logic-based expert systems - artificial intelligence, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Logic-based expert systems - artificial intelligence Discussions

Write discussion on Logic-based expert systems - artificial intelligence
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Decision Tree Learning: Furthermore there is specified in the last lecture such as the representation scheme we choose to represent our learned solutions and the way that we l

Write a PERL script which takes a file named input.txt as an input and processes it. The input file has the following format: firstname lastname: pass/fail score%. A sample input f

Described auto increment mode of addressing? Ans: Effective address of the operand is the contents of a register mention in the instruction. After finishing the accessing t

Trunks are the lines that run between (A)  subscribers and exchange        (B) switching system and power plant (C)  Local Area Network                (D) switching syste

What are the difference between heap and stack? The Stack is more or less responsible for maintaining track of what's executing into our code or what's been "called". The Heap

Subtraction 11011-11001 using 2's complement. Ans. 11011 - 11001 = A - B 2's complement of B = 00111 1 1 0 1 1 + 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 Ignore carry to get answer as 00010 = 2.

Functions carried out by different operating systems The below is a list of functions carried out by different operating systems: - Provides a user interface - Device man

create a stored procedure to debit a bank account user must enter account no. and amount to debited from account .the minimum balance in account should be 500. if the debited amoun

END DIRECTIVE: ENDS directive ends a segment and ENDP directive ends a procedure and END directive ends whole program which appears as last statement. ASSUME Directive:   An .

What are the type of Internet connection When determining requirements for a VPN, carefully estimate the number of systems to be put behind the VPN, the number of concurrent u