Jaundice (icterus), Biology

Jaundice (Icterus)

Jaundice is classified as pre-hepatic (hemolytic), hepatic and post-hepatic (obstructive) depending on origin of the problem, and is characterized by yellowish discolouration of visible mucous membrane, and tissues. The obstructive jaundice may occur due to extra-hepatic biliary obstruction, or due to intra-hepatic primary cholestasis. It is more intense in obstructive and hepatocellular damage than when it is caused by excess destruction of red blood cells (RBC). The yellow pigment, bilirubin deposits in the plasma and other tissues. Bilirubin concentration in plasma increases (hyperbilirubinemia), if the production exceeds the excretory capacity of the liver. Jaundice may occur with or without impairment of bile flow. In impairment of bile flow, bilirubin metabolite is absent in the faeces and jaundice is very severe.

Etiology: Haemolytic jaundice is caused by bacterial toxins, babesiosis and inorganic and organic poisons. Bacillary haemoglobinuria and leptospirosis are characterized by intravascular haemolysis. Acute haemolytic anaemia is also seen in calves following drinking of large quantity of cold water, or drinking immediately after exercise in animals. Diffuse diseases of liver cause degeneration of hepatic cells due to toxic conditions that are enlisted under hepatitis. Obstructions of bile ducts by biliary calculi or obstruction of common bile duct by nematodes or infestation with trematodes are common in animals. The mechanical stasis of biliary flow is caused by fibrosed tissue.

Diagnosis: Failure of liver to dispose off bile pigments in the circulation may result in retention jaundice. This may be due to excessive destruction of red blood cells (RBCs). Haemolytic or damaged parenchymal cells are not able to excrete normal quantity of bile pigments (toxic jaundice). In toxic jaundice there is retention of bile pigments but anaemia is absent. If signs of anaemia accompany jaundice, haemolytic origin should be suspected.

Presence of urinary bilirubin and absence of urobilirubin from the urine and faeces indicate obstructive jaundice of extrahepatic type. When bile appears in the urine, one can be definite that either liver disease is present or bile duct is obstructed.

Treatment: The line of treatment suggested for the animals suffering from hepatitis is of value for its treatment.

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 1:03:49 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Jaundice (icterus), Assignment Help, Ask Question on Jaundice (icterus), Get Answer, Expert's Help, Jaundice (icterus) Discussions

Write discussion on Jaundice (icterus)
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Airway Management To improved ventilation, suctioning, IPPB, Ultrasonic mist therapy and postural drainage with clapping and vibrating are all employed to halt the progress o

Advantages (1)   Liquid and gaseous fuels can be manufactured from solid fuels. (2)   Relatively cheap and easily available. (3)   These are easy to transport. (4)   A

A person with a cough takes a patent cough syrup. In three days, the cough is better. Does this mean that the syrup has cured the cough?  Justify your answer. There is insuffic

List the routine treatment sequence for an implant patient. The different phases are - Preliminary treatment - Stage I surgical phase - Stage II surgery and Prosthetic

Q. What are the types of antigenic agents that may constitute vaccines? Vaccines can be constituted of dead agents of disease, of inactivated toxins, of inactivated agents of d

Q. How do taenias obtain food and make gas exchange? The Tapeworms have sucking and hooks structures on their heads (scolex) that fixate the parasite in the gut wall these stru

Central Nervous System   Hypertension is one of the leading causes of cerebrovascular disease. It has been associated with accelerated age related cognitive decline. The most d

Explain Angio-edema Angio-edema:  Swelling of the mucous membranes, tissues beneath the skin or an internal organ because of an allergic reaction.

Q. Symptoms of malabsorption syndrome? The most common symptoms are weakness, lassitude and marked weight loss. Steatorrhoea (excess fat in stools), anaemia and chronic ill h

Q. What are the kinds of leukocytes and how are they classified into granulocytes and agranulocytes? The kinds of lymphocytes are leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils