Jaundice (icterus), Biology

Jaundice (Icterus)

Jaundice is classified as pre-hepatic (hemolytic), hepatic and post-hepatic (obstructive) depending on origin of the problem, and is characterized by yellowish discolouration of visible mucous membrane, and tissues. The obstructive jaundice may occur due to extra-hepatic biliary obstruction, or due to intra-hepatic primary cholestasis. It is more intense in obstructive and hepatocellular damage than when it is caused by excess destruction of red blood cells (RBC). The yellow pigment, bilirubin deposits in the plasma and other tissues. Bilirubin concentration in plasma increases (hyperbilirubinemia), if the production exceeds the excretory capacity of the liver. Jaundice may occur with or without impairment of bile flow. In impairment of bile flow, bilirubin metabolite is absent in the faeces and jaundice is very severe.

Etiology: Haemolytic jaundice is caused by bacterial toxins, babesiosis and inorganic and organic poisons. Bacillary haemoglobinuria and leptospirosis are characterized by intravascular haemolysis. Acute haemolytic anaemia is also seen in calves following drinking of large quantity of cold water, or drinking immediately after exercise in animals. Diffuse diseases of liver cause degeneration of hepatic cells due to toxic conditions that are enlisted under hepatitis. Obstructions of bile ducts by biliary calculi or obstruction of common bile duct by nematodes or infestation with trematodes are common in animals. The mechanical stasis of biliary flow is caused by fibrosed tissue.

Diagnosis: Failure of liver to dispose off bile pigments in the circulation may result in retention jaundice. This may be due to excessive destruction of red blood cells (RBCs). Haemolytic or damaged parenchymal cells are not able to excrete normal quantity of bile pigments (toxic jaundice). In toxic jaundice there is retention of bile pigments but anaemia is absent. If signs of anaemia accompany jaundice, haemolytic origin should be suspected.

Presence of urinary bilirubin and absence of urobilirubin from the urine and faeces indicate obstructive jaundice of extrahepatic type. When bile appears in the urine, one can be definite that either liver disease is present or bile duct is obstructed.

Treatment: The line of treatment suggested for the animals suffering from hepatitis is of value for its treatment.

Posted Date: 9/19/2012 1:03:49 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Jaundice (icterus), Assignment Help, Ask Question on Jaundice (icterus), Get Answer, Expert's Help, Jaundice (icterus) Discussions

Write discussion on Jaundice (icterus)
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions

Define water losses by visible perspiration? The water losses by visible perspiration are highly variable; the amount could be as high as 4L in hot climate or during strenuous

OVARIES - 2 in number (didelphic). White / pinkish. Almond like. 3 cm long, 2 cm wide, 1 cm thick. Lie in the lower part of abdomen attached to dorsal wall by mesovarium.

Amphibia n - 3 chambered heart 2 auricles and 1 ventricle. Sinus venosus and truncus arteriosus (its main part is pylengium) present. Incomplete double circulation prese

SURGERY FOR CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE : Stenotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is caused by the thickening and narrowing of the coronary arteries (Atherosclerosis). Initially it cau

Counseling is a process whereby a qualified person purposefully assists another person to handle his or her problems. Counselling is not just giving advice. It is dependent  on mut

How is the nervous system of nematodes organized? Where are the neural chords located in their body? Roundworms have a ganglial nervous system with an anterior neural ring sho

Q. List the steps of mitosis and briefly describe what happens in each.

Tyndall Effect One of the best ways to distinguish a solution from a colloidal dispersion is to use a strong beam of intense light. As the beam passes through a colloidal dispe

Q. Explain the Causes of steatorrhoea? The list of possible underlying causes of steatorrhoea includes: • Malabsorption • Malabiorptian of fats in small intestine •