Explain hardness - water softening, Civil Engineering

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Explain Hardness - Water Softening

1) Hardness is used to characterize a water that does not lather well, causes a scum in the bath tub and leaves hard, white, crusty deposits when water is heated

2) Calcium or magnesium forms soap- Ca or Mg complex and prevents soap from interacting with dirt

3) Hardness- caused mainly by Calcium and Magnesium(actually all polyvalent ions)

4) Common units are meq/l or mg/l as CaCO3


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