Q. Explain basic working of Integrators?
Figure shows a noninverting integrator, which can be seen to be a negative impedance converter added with a resistor and a capacitor. Noting that v_{o} = 2v_{1} and i_{3} = v_{1}/R, the total capacitor current is
which shows that the circuit functions as an integrator.
Replacing R2 in the inverting amplifier of Figure by a capacitance C results in the somewhat simpler integrator circuit shown in Figure, known as an inverting integrator, or Miller integrator. With ideal op-amp techniques, i_{C} = i_{in} = v_{in}/R. The voltage across C is just vo, so that
which illustrates that the network behaves as an integrator with sign inversion.