Existential quantification - sql, PL-SQL Programming

Assignment Help:

Existential Quantification - SQL

Existential quantification-stating that something is true of at least one object under consideration-can be expressed by OR(r,c), meaning that at least one object that satisfies a predicate for r also satisfies c, and IS_NOT_EMPTY(r). The names for the aggregate operators AND and OR reflect the facts that when we confine our attention to finite sets, universal and existential quantification are equivalent to repeated invocations of dyadic AND and dyadic OR, respectively. Note that AND(r,c) is equivalent to COUNT(r) = COUNT(r WHERE c), and OR(r,c) is equivalent to COUNT(r WHERE c) > 0 and also to IS_NOT_EMPTY(r WHERE c).

Quantification also appears in various guises in SQL, but its meaning is muddied by those same two violations of relational theory that we have already seen muddying the waters: duplicate rows and NULL. For example, SQL's (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM r), a so-called scalar subquery (because it is an expression denoting a table with one row and one column, enclosed in parentheses), denotes the number of rows in the table r, but can we really say that this represents the number of objects that satisfy a predicate for r, if the same row can be counted more than once, or if NULL appears in place of a column value in some row of r? In fact, what might it mean to say that a row does or does not satisfy a predicate? In 2VL we say that object a satisfies predicate P(x) exactly when P(a) is true. Does this still hold in 3VL, or might SQL deem a to satisfy P(x) also when P(a) is unknown? Well, it turns out that SQL uses both interpretations, depending on the context, as we shall discover.


Related Discussions:- Existential quantification - sql

Second step at defining type sid in sql, Second Step at defining type SID i...

Second Step at defining type SID in SQL CREATE TYPE SID AS VARCHAR(5) ; Explanation: TYPE SID announces that a type named SID is being defined to the system.

Package body in pl/sql, Package Body: The package specification is imp...

Package Body: The package specification is implemented by the package body. That is, the package body has the definition of every cursor and the subprogram declared in the pac

Manipulating local collections - pl/sql, Manipulating Local Collections ...

Manipulating Local Collections Within PL/SQL, to manipulate the local collection, by using the  TABLE and CAST operators . The operands of CAST are a collection declared locally

Keyword and parameter description in pl sql, Keyword and Parameter Descript...

Keyword and Parameter Description: label_name: This is an undeclared identifier which optionally labels the PL/SQL block. When used, label_name should be enclosed by the do

In operator-comparison operators, IN Operator The operator IN tests the ...

IN Operator The operator IN tests the set membership. This means "equal to any member of." The set may have nulls, but they are ignored. For illustration, the statement below do

Example of group by and collect operator, Example of GROUP BY and COLLECT O...

Example of GROUP BY and COLLECT Operator Example: Using GROUP BY and COLLECT to obtain C_ER2 SELECT CourseId, CAST ( COLLECT (ROW (StudentId, Mark)) AS ROW (Studen

Information hiding in pl/sql, Information Hiding   With the informatio...

Information Hiding   With the information hiding, you see only the details that are significant at a given level of algorithm and data structure design. The Information hiding

Using default-declarations in sql, Using DEFAULT You can use the keyword...

Using DEFAULT You can use the keyword DEFAULT rather than that of the assignment operator to initialize the variables. For e.g. the declaration blood_type CHAR := ’O’; it can b

Rewrite rules - tautology, Equivalences & Rewrite Rules: If notice tha...

Equivalences & Rewrite Rules: If notice that as well as allowing us to prove trivial theorems, and tautologies enable us to establish that certain sentences are saying the sam

Cursors, What is Cursors how to use it in Real time application ?

What is Cursors how to use it in Real time application ?

Write Your Message!

Free Assignment Quote

Assured A++ Grade

Get guaranteed satisfaction & time on delivery in every assignment order you paid with us! We ensure premium quality solution document along with free turntin report!

All rights reserved! Copyrights ©2019-2020 ExpertsMind IT Educational Pvt Ltd