Endoscopy (Greek: endon, within; skopion, to look at)
Endoscope, a tubular instrument, is used to examine interior of body cavity or a hollow organ. Besides examination of respiratory system (bronchoscopy), the endoscopy is also used to examine esophagus (esophagoscopy) to determine diverticulum, foreign body fistula, meso-oesophagus, rupture, stricture and ulceration; stomach (gastroscopy) for gastric ulcers, pyloric stenosis, squamous cell carcinoma, and presence of parasitic (gastrophilus, draschia) larvae in horses; small intestine (enteroscopy) for duodenal conditions, ulcers, mucosal lesion and gastrophilus nasalis; large intestine (colonoscopy) for the presence of whip worms, brush cytology, foreign body and mucosal lesions and peritoneal cavity (laparoscopy) for abdominal tumor and abscess, evaluation of peritonitis, chronic colic and abdominal metastatic lesions, location of cryptorchid testes and in ovarian and urogenital disorders. The endoscopy is a valuable technique in the removal of foreign bodies, tumor therapy and monitoring surgical and medical therapy. Recently, more advanced ultra thin (2-3 mm diameter) endoscope with improved lens and photographic attachments are available for examination of blood vessels.