Dose-response extrapolation, Biology

Dose-response extrapolation

In order to be compared to human exposure levels, the animal data need to be extrapolated to doses much lower than those studied. This extrapolation procedure is uncertain both qualitatively and quantitatively. The nature of the hazard may change with dose or may  disappear entirely. The selected dose-response model may be incorrect if the nature of the response in animals and humans is qualitatively the same. Not only is the equivalent dose estimate in animals and humans a problem in comparative pharmacokinetics, but  also is the change in metabolism with dose. The metabolism of chemicals at high  and  low  doses may differ. For example, high doses often overwhelm normal detoxification/metabolism  pathways and produce adverse effects that would not occur at lower levels. High doses can induce higher rates of enzyme production, physiological changes and dose-related pathological changes. The toxicologist must consider the potential impact of these and other possible dose-related changes on the extrapolation of the adverse effect to  lower doses.


Posted Date: 5/27/2013 3:41:02 AM | Location : United States

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