## Define the arithmetic micro-operations, Computer Engineering

Assignment Help:

Q. Define the Arithmetic Micro-operations?

These micro-operations execute simple arithmetic operations on numeric data stored in registers. The fundamental arithmetic micro-operations are subtraction, addition, decrement, increment and shift.

R3 ← R1 +R2

It means that contents of register R1 are added to contents of register R2 and sum is transferred to register R3. This operation needs three registers to hold data along with Binary Adder circuit in the ALU. Binary adder is a digital circuitthat produces the arithmetic sum of two binary numbers of any lengths and is constructed with full-adder circuits associated in cascade. An n-bit binary adder needs n full-adders. Add micro-operation in accumulator machine can be performed as:

AC ← AC + DR

Subtraction is most frequently implemented in machines through complement and adds operations. It is specified as:

R3 ← R1 - R2

R3 ← R1 + (2's complement of R2)

R3 ← R1 + (1's complement of R2 + 1)

R3 ← R1 + R2 + 1 (The bar on top of R2 implies 1's complement of R2 that is bitwise complement)

Adding 1 to 1's complement generates the 2's complement. Adding contents of R1 to the 2's complement of R2 is equal to subtracting contents of R2 from R1 and storing the result in R3.

The increment micro-operation adds one to a number in a register. This operation is expressed as:

R1 ← R1 + 1

This can be implemented in hardware by employing a binary-up counter.

The decrement micro-operation subtracts one from a number in a register. This operation is expressed as:

R1 ← R1 - 1

This can be implemented by binary-down counter.

#### Explain high level data link control, Explain High Level Data Link Control....

Explain High Level Data Link Control. HDLC - it is High Level Data Link Control: Protocol Overall explanation: Layer 2 of the OSI model is the data link layer. One of the

#### Explain routing tone in strowger telephony, Explain routing tone in strowge...

Explain routing tone in strowger telephony with waveforms and the timings. The call-in-progress tone or routing tone is a 400 Hz or 800 Hz intermittent pattern. In electromec

#### Perceptron training, Perceptron training: Here the weights are initial...

Perceptron training: Here the weights are initially assigned randomly and training examples are needed one after another to tweak the weights in the network. Means all the exa

#### Computer architecture, pipelining hazards

pipelining hazards

#### C programming, write a program to find the area under the curve y=f(x) betw...

write a program to find the area under the curve y=f(x) between x=a and x=b,integrate y=f(x) between the limits a and b

#### What is program-controlled i/o, What is program-controlled I/O? In prog...

What is program-controlled I/O? In program controlled I/O the processor repeatedly checks a status flags to achieve the needed synchronization among the processor and an input

#### Define the architectural framework for electronic commerce, Define the Arch...

Define the Architectural framework for electronic commerce. An application independent framework to categorize service interaction relies onto four fundamental dimensions a.

#### What are various ids associated with a process, What are various IDs associ...

What are various IDs associated with a process? Unix identifies each process with a unique integer known as ProcessID. The process that implements the request for creation of a

#### Find out the number of control lines for 32 to 1 multiplexer, The number of...

The number of control lines for 32 to 1 multiplexer is ? Ans. For 32 (2 5 ) the number of control lines and to select one i/p between them total 5 select lines are needed.

#### What are the cycle based simulators, What are the Cycle based simulators ...

What are the Cycle based simulators Cycle based simulators are more like a high speed electric carving knife in comparison since they focus on a subset of the biggest problem:  