Define nutrient needs of a lactating mother, Biology

Define nutrient needs of a lactating mother?

Energy and Protein Needs: Remember that during pregnancy, well-nourished women will have laid down approximately 2-4 kg of fat. This can be mobilized to supply a portion of the additional energy for lactation. It is estimated that this amount of storage fat will provide 200-300 Kcal/day for a period of three months. However, this amount represents only a part of the energy cost of milk production.

The volume of milk produced is assumed to be 750 mm based on various studies. With an average content of 70 Kcal/100ml, the daily output of energy would be approximately 520 Kcal. You must remember that the efficiency of milk production would be 80% or a maximum of 90%. Thus, an additional energy supply of approximately 600 Kcal/day should be adequate to support lactation. The intakes recommended by the ICMR are shown in Table.

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Note in Table, the RDIs for all major nutrients are given for the first 6 months of lactation, as well as, the second 6 months of lactation, when the volume of milk produced has decreased. However, women who had a low pre pregnancy weight gain, who have decreased weight for height and who breastfeed more than one infant, will more likely need additional kilo calories during lactation. FAO/WHO 2004 recommends that well-nourished women with adequate gestational weight gain should increase their food intake by 505 Kcal/day for the first six months of lactation, while undernourished women and those with insufficient gestational weight gain should add to their personal energy demands 675 Kcal/day during the first six months of lactation. Energy requirements for milk production in the second six months are dependent on rates of milk production, which are highly variable among women and populations.

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