A unified approach to all problems of prediction, estimation, and hypothesis testing. It is based on concept of the decision function, which tells the performer of experiment how to conduct the statistical aspects of an experiment and which action to take for each possible outcome. Choosing the decision function needs a loss function to be defined which assigns numerical values to making bad or good decisions. Explicitly a general loss function is denoted by L d; expressing how bad it would be to make decision d if the parameter value were. A quadratic loss function, it could be defined as and a bilinear loss function as