Cultured plant cells:
Cultured plant cells are recognized to give biochemicals of interest since 1950's, but starting the yields were very low. Refined culture structures have changed the biochemical yields considerably, and over half a dozen cell cultures provides 2 g/I or more of the biochemical. Shikonin (a naphthoquinone) is generates on a commercial scale from cell cultures of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, while berberine (an alkaloid) is calculated from Coptis japonica cell cultures. Interestingly, Ginserg tissues provides in vitro (19 g dry cells/I)produced in 2000 I bioreactors) are needed as additives in tonic wines, drinks, soups, herbal liquors etc. The biochemicals gets from plant cell cultures are comparable to those generated from intact plants in their biochemical, chemical and biological properties. In addition, cultured cells of various plant species give biochemicals which have so far not been changed in whole plants; the list of such elements has grown rapidly to 140 in 1992 from merely 4 in 1978. For example, cell suspension cultures of Rauwolfia serpentina have been exposed to create 4 larger polar alkaloids which are novel glucosides of ajmaline and its derivatives.