When Management chooses to moderate a risk, they will do so by execute one or more of three dissimilar types of controls.
Administrative controls (also called procedural controls) consist of accepted written, procedures, standards, policies and strategy. Administrative controls form the framework for running the business and organization people. They notify people on how the business is to be run and how day to day operations are to be conducted. Regulation and rules created by government bodies are also a type of managerial control because they notify the business. Some industry sectors have policies, events, standards and guidelines that must be followed - the Payment Card Industry (PCI) Data Security Standard required by master card and visa is such an instance. Other examples of administrative controls consist of the corporate password policy, security policy, hiring policies and disciplinary policies.
Administrative manage form the basis for the selection and implementation of logical and physical controls. Physical and Logical controls are manifestations of administrative controls. Administrative controls are of principal importance.
Logical controls (also called technical controls) use software and data to control and monitor access to information and computing systems. For instance: network, passwords and host based network intrusion detection systems, firewalls, data encryption and access control lists,are rational controls.
An significant logical control that is often overlooked is the principle of least privilege. The standard of least license requires that an entity, system or program process is not arranged any more access privileges than are necessary to execute the assignment. A blatant example of the failure to adhere to the principle of least opportunity is logging into Windows as user manager to examine Email and surf the Web. Contravention of this principle can also occur when an individual collects additional access privileges over time. This occurs when employees' job duties change, or they are promoted to a new position, or they transfer to one more section. The access rights required by their new duties are frequently added onto their previously existing access rights which may no longer be necessary or suitable.
Physical controls check and control the environment of the work place and computing conveniences. They also control and monitor access to and from such services. For instance: locks, doors, heating and air conditioning, smoke and fire alarms, fire cameras, barricades ,suppression systems, fencing, cable locks, security guards, etc. Separating the network and work place into functional areas are also physical controls.
An significant physical control that is often overlooked is the separation of duties. division of duties make sure that an individual can not entire a serious task by himself. For instance: an employee who submits a request for repayment should not also be able to approve payment or produce the ensure An applications programmer should not also be the server manager or the database administrator - these roles and responsibilities must be estranged from one another.