Control Charts for Attributes - Statistical Process Control
Attribute data assume only two values, such as pass/fail or good/bad: they are counted rather than measured. Many quality characteristics can only be monitored in this way, such as the soundness of a soldered connection or the absence of components on a printed circuit board. Before proceeding further, a distinction must be made between defectives and defects. The term defective refers to a non-conforming item of output. A defect is a non-conforming feature of a single item of output: such an item may have more than one defect. Control charts for attributes have several advantages:
On the other hand, they have the following disadvantages:
Several attributes control charts have been devised, but those most commonly used are those described below. Two charts that look for defective items are discussed - the p-chart that looks at the proportion of defectives when the sample size is variable, and the np- chart that looks for the proportion of defectives in a constant sample size. Another sort of chart - the c-chart - is also described. This looks for the number of defects on an item.