The first step towards HRD is to set up a unit in the organisation to deal exclusively with personnel development programmes. The mechanisms to implement these programmes are to introduce a process of performance evaluation of staff at all levels, assess deficiences or under performance, and such other shortfalls in performance. Corrective steps are to conceive and design specific instruments to set things right and get maximum productivity through the optimum efficiency of the staff. The HRD unit should concern itself with the following aspects:
• performance appraisal;
• appraisal, review, feedback, and counselling;
• exercises on role analysis; potential development;
• training policies;
• communication policies;
• job rotation;
• organisation development;
• job enrichment programmes;
• awards, rewards and incentives; and
• steps to introduce an organisational and work culture.
Performance appraisal: It is a periodical evaluation of employees' performance. Proper evaluation is carried out with appropriate yardsticks; data on performance review and feedback from the employee are estimated with reference to the employee's optimum potential. Performance coaching and counselling would enable employees to contribute to their optimum potential.
Role analysis: Role is the position an employee occupies as defined by expectations of different significant persons have for the person. Role analysis is concerned with optimum stress, linkages and autonomy. Optimum stress refers to tuning a person to raise his contribution to the optimum level. Linkages provide for infra and interrelations between individuals and teams within the units and outside. Autonomy permits an individual to display initiative in dealing with a new problem and finding a solution to it.
Training policies: These are widely laid down and practised in most organisations to build up staff skills. Training has to be with reference to the types of training required by an organisation, in-house training or training by professional bodies or institutions, evaluation of trained employees and utilisation of the training obtained.
Communication policies contribute substantially to the health of the organisation. Through appropriate internal communication channels, the organisational activities can be authenticallyreported. This would prevent unnecessary faith in grapevine and gossip among the employees. The employees would also be properly informed about the activities and progress of the organisation.
Job rotation: Judicious transfer of persons to pick up experience and expertise in different areas of work in different units of an organisation also would contribute to the health of the organisation.
Organisation development: An organisation has to be dynamic and should positively respond to changes in the environment, advances in technology, and diversification of products and services. Growth, impact in the field and selfdeveloping mechanisms are important for organisation development.
Award, reward and incentives: Another important aspect relates to awards, rewards, incentives schemes, both for individuals and groups, which would generate greater involvement of employees in work and contribute to quality assurance. This scheme needs very judicious implementation, i.e., only after a foolproof method has been evolved. If this precaution is not taken, undesirable results detrimental to organisational growth may follow.
Organisational culture: For the development of an organisational culture, an appropriate environmental climate is necessary. Communication within the organisation that permits top-down, bottom-up, horizontal, circular and external communication has to be built into the organisation. This would ensure smoothness in employee ( employer relationship. This also would create the right atmosphere to develop a work culture, contributing positively to the organisation.
The above aspects would be influenced by factors like management style, environment, technology, resource availability, background and past history of the organisation, nature of business, and others. If properly attended and successfully implemented, this is likely to be reflected in organisational effectiveness like higher productivity, growth and diversification, cost reduction, more profits and a better image of the organisation