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RESISTORS: Resistors are designed to drop the amount of voltage going through them, this allows the other components past them to work properly. They are not a polarised component, this means that it does not matter which way that you put them in they will still work correctly. Resistors can have different values, depending on the voltage drop required in the circuit; there is usually more than one resistor in a circuit.
TRIMPOT: The trimpot used in this circuit is basically a 10kO variable resistor, this means that you can manually change its resistance from 0O right up to 10,000O (10k). In the case of the amplifier it has to be set around a certain resistance otherwise it will distort the signal; it will make the signal cap if set too high, and will stop most of the amplification if it is set too low.
CAPACITORS: The Capacitors in this circuit are smoothing out the outgoing signal so that the speakers produce a nice clean and crisp sound, instead of something that more resembles static. There are many different values for the capacitors, and each of them smooths the graph out a certain amount. Capacitors can also have different functionalities in different circuits, for example if the correct ones are put into a blinker circuit, then they will charge and discharge at different rates, depending on the value of the capacitor, this will make the lights of the circuit flash. The capacitors used in this circuit are electrolytic, this means that they are polarised and they can only be installed one way, if they are installed the wrong way they will not allow any current to pass through them, therefore the circuit will not work.