Australopithecus-The Transitional Human Forms
By about two million years ago, there were several well established hominid ancestors in Africa. One of the earliest of these is Australopithecus. Fossils of Australopithecus, which have been recovered from South and East Africa, show that their brains were relatively small, the bones enclosing the brain, therefore, were rather ape like, but the face was shorter than in apes. The enamel of the teeth indicated that Australopithecus ate essentially fruits. The evidence for two-footed posture in Australopithecus is strong as the back bone shows the typical hominid curvature. Also the hip bone, which is the skeletal frame to which the legs are attached is shorter than in apes, although it is not as short as in modem humans.