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Hydraulic Systems Assignment Help, Principles of Hydraulic System
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A hydraulic system or a hydraulic drive system is a transmission or drive system which uses the pressurized hydraulic fluid for driving hydraulic machinery. A hydraulic drive system consists of basically three parts which are the generator, the motor and the combustion engine or windmill. Valves, filter and dipping etc contribute for guiding and controlling the system.
Principles of hydraulic drive
Hydraulic drive systems are based on Pascal Law. Since the pressure within the system is same, the force which the fluid gives to the surroundings if equal to product of pressure and area. Therefore a large piston feels a larger force and a small piston feels a small force.
The same principle is incorporated in a hydraulic pump and the pump with a small swept volume requires a small torque and a hydraulic motor with a large sweep volume requires a larger torque. In this way, the transmission ratios are built. Almost all the hydraulic drive systems use hydraulic cylinders. The principle that a small torque can be transmitted to a large force is used in them. The ratio of transmission can be changed easily by using hydraulic pumps or motors with adjustable swept volumes or by throttling the fluid between the motor and the generator part. By using throttling, the efficiency of transmission gets limited. The efficiency can be made very large by using adjustable pumps and motors. Till the year 1980, the hydraulic drive system was the supreme and had no competition from other adjustable drive systems. As of now, the electric drive systems which use electric servo motors are excellent in control and can readily complete with linear other rotating hydraulic drive systems. For linear forces, hydraulic cylinders are without competition and the hydraulic systems within these cylinders can be used for rotating drives of the cooling systems also.
The hydraulic cylinder -the hydraulic cylinders can also be termed as mechanical actuators which are used for maintaining a hydraulic system and give a linear force generated by linear stroke. They are also termed as linear hydraulic motors. A hydraulic cylinder can provide a pushing or pulling force of millions of metric tons. The simplest of hydraulic cylinders are used in presses where the cylinder is volume of piece of iron containing a plunger pushed in it, which is then sealed with cover. When the hydraulic fluid is pumped into the volume, the plunger is pushed out by the force of plunger area pressure.
The more modern and highly sophisticated cylinders have body comprising of a cylinder head, a piston rod and a wind cover. The bottom is connected to a single clevis on one side and on the other side the piston rod is foreseen having a small clevis. The cylinder shell is connected on both sides by hydraulic connections i.e. at the bottom side as well as on the cylinder head side. When the oil is pushed under the piston, it leads to the pushing out of the piston rod and the oil that was in between the piston and cylinder head is pushed back to the oil tank.
The maximum working pressure can go up to 70 bars for a simple hydraulic cylinder. The pressure then increases gradually to 140 bar, 210, bar, 320/350 bar and so on. These cylinders are generally custom built. At the time of manufacturing, the stroke of a hydraulic cylinder manufactured is made specific and limited. The majority of hydraulic cylinders have their stroke range varying between 0, 3 and 5 meters. A 12-15 range of stroke is also possible, but few suppliers supply such cylinders.
The hydraulic motor-The hydraulic motor can be termed as the rotary counterpart of the hydraulic cylinder. The hydraulic motor performs the opposite function of a hydraulic pump and thus should be interchangeable with it. But this is not the case in real practice as many hydraulic pumps cannot be back driven and hence cannot be used as a hydraulic motor. The hydraulic motor can bear the working pressure on both its sides and can be reversed by reversing valve. In a hydraulic system, the fluid flow can be termed equivalent to current and the pressure can be compared to the voltage. The flow rate is decided by the speed and size of pump while the load determines the pressure gradient.
The hydraulic valves-The valves can bear high pressures and some special ones can also control the direction of fluid flow while acting as a control unit of the system.
Classifications of hydraulic valves
A. Classification based on function- if valves are classified on functional basis; there are three categories of them.
1. The pressure control valves 2. The flow control valves and 3. The direction control valves.
B. Classification based on method of activation- the valves can be classified into five distinct types in this type of classification.
1. The directly operated valve 2.The pilot operated valve 3. The mutually operated valve 4 the electrically actuated valve and 5. The open control valve.
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