If you stand at the North Pole, all of the visible stars, except the North Star, appear to move parallel to the horizon.
The phases of the Moon are caused by the Earth's shadow falling on the surface of the Moon.
All of the stars in a given constellation are about the same distance away from the Earth.
According to Einstein's special theory of relativity, nothing can travel faster than the speed of light.
As the frequency of light increases, the wavelength of light also increases.
The force of gravity between two objects is attractive and dependent only on the mass of the larger object, not of the smaller object.
Planets form from the material in a protoplanetary disk.
An astronomical unit (AU) is the distance between the Earth and the Moon.
The conservation of angular momentum predicts that when an object collapses, it spins slower.
Terrestrial planets have rocky cores and few moons, if any.
Earth's shadow falling on the Moon is the reason we see
A. solar eclipses.
B. Earth's shadow cannot fall on the Moon.
C. lunar eclipses.
D. the phases of the Moon.
One important characteristic of a scientific theory is that it
A. is mathematical.
B. consists of at least three separate hypotheses.
C. can be tested by observation.
D. need not have a connection with physical reality.
The constellation whose stars are used as pointers to the north celestial pole in the northern hemisphere is
A. Leo, the lion, containing the bright star Regulus.
B. Ursa Major, the Big Bear.
C. Ursa Minor, the Little Bear, containing the bright star Polaris.
D. Boes, the Shepherd, containing the bright star Arcturus.
When the Sun is at one of the equinoxes,
A. day and night are of equal length only for people on the equator.
B. the day is longer than the night in one hemisphere of Earth and shorter in the other hemisphere.
C. people on the equator have perpetual daylight.
D. day and night are of equal length everywhere on Earth.
When in total lunar eclipse, the Moon shows a reddish color because
A. light from the northern and southern lights (the aurora) on Earth, which is predominantly red, illuminates the Moon.
B. this is the color of the residual thermal glow from a still-warm Moon after the abrupt removal of the heat of the Sun.
C. the Moon is illuminated only by the residual glow from the dark side of Earth, which is predominantly red.
D. most of the sunlight that passes through the atmosphere is red.
An astronomer studying a particular object in space finds that the object emits light only in specific, narrow emission lines. The correct conclusion is that this object
A. cannot consist of gases but must be a solid object.
B. is made up of a hot, dense gas surrounded by a rarefied gas.
C. is made up of a hot, dense gas.
D. is made up of a hot, low-density gas.
In 1675, Rømer measured the speed of light by
A. timing eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, which appeared to occur later when Earth was farther from Jupiter.
B. measuring how long it took the light from stars located at different distances to reach Earth.
C. reflecting light from a mirror rotating at a known speed and measuring the angle of deflection of the light beam.
D. opening a shutter on a lantern on a hilltop and measuring the time taken for light from an assistant's shuttered lantern to return.
Why was adaptive optics developed?
A. to prevent distortion of mirrors by the vacuum of space
B. to prevent distortion by sagging in very thin, lightweight mirrors
C. to compensate for spherical aberration
D. to compensate for image distortion caused by Earth's atmosphere
On the absolute scale of temperature (in kelvins), the zero of the scale corresponds to the
A. freezing point of hydrogen.
B. melting point of ice.
C. mean temperature of space.
D. temperature at which motions of atoms and molecules essentially cease.
The main reason for placing astronomical telescopes and detectors on satellites is to
A. avoid dust and haze in Earth's atmosphere.
B. avoid light pollution from cities and other built-up areas.
C. get closer to the objects being viewed.
D. get above the absorption in Earth's atmosphere.
The greatest inaccuracy in Copernicus's theory of the solar system was that he
A. placed the planets in circular orbits.
B. placed the planets on epicycles, the centers of which followed orbits around Earth.
C. did not allow for retrograde motion.
D. assumed that the planets move in elliptical orbits with constant speeds rather than variable speeds.
If you were to be sent to the Moon, which of your physical properties would be altered noticeably?
When Jupiter is at opposition, it rises at
Retrograde motion of a planet when viewed from Earth is caused by
A. the relative motions of Sun and planet.
B. its elliptical orbital path.
C. the relative motions of Earth and planet.
D. the inclination of its orbit to the ecliptic plane.
According to Kepler's second law, an object in an elliptical orbit around the Sun is traveling fastest when it is at what position?
A. Because it travels at a constant speed throughout its orbit, there is no such position.
B. when it is approaching the Sun, because attraction is greatest over this region
C. aphelion, farthest from the Sun, because it has to move farther per day at that position
D. perihelion, closest point to the Sun
Which planets do not have natural satellites (moons)?
A. Jupiter and Uranus
B. Uranus and Mars
C. Mars and Venus
D. Venus and Mercury
In general, what are the characteristics of the planets that have been found so far around other stars?
A. They are the mass of Saturn or larger, and are therefore Jovian-type planets.
B. They are larger than the mass of Jupiter, and are probably a new type of planetary object.
C. Between the mass of Mercury and Earth, and are therefore terrestrial-type planets.
D. They have masses between the mass of Earth and about 3 times the mass of Jupiter.
The asteroid belt is believed by most astronomers to be composed of
A. icy fragments similar to the nuclei of comets.
B. genuine leather.
C. rocky debris left over from the formation of the solar system.
D. the remnants of a gaseous planet disrupted by an impact.
Determination of the chemical composition of the atmospheres of the planets is carried out most effectively by what type of study?
A. photometry-the measurement of the fading of light from their moons as they pass behind the planet's atmosphere
B. measurement of their relative mean densities
C. measurement of their atmospheric temperature
D. spectroscopy-the measurement of absorption features in their spectra
The correct sequence of planets in our solar system from the Sun outward is
A. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Saturn, Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune.
B. Mercury, Earth, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
C. Mercury, Venus, Mars, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
D. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
What is the reason why we have seasons on the Earth?
What causes the Doppler effect and why is it so important for the study of astronomy?
What observations did Galileo make that supported a heliocentric model?
How are exoplanets currently being detected?