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Provided the rising rates of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension in the U.S. and other industrialized nations, you are interested in studying the importance of cholesterol transport in the sodium re-absorptive pathways in the kidney that are important for blood pressure control. One way to study this pathway is to use a mouse model in which an important transporter for cholesterol is "knocked out."Standard gene targeting methods to "knock out" the cholesterol transporter, Abca1, create mice with several severe developmental abnormalities including glomerulonephritis, a kidney defect that would confound the study of other renal processes in this model. For this reason, you decided to make a tissue specific knockout mouse where Abca1 is only "knocked out" in your cell type of interest, the renal collecting duct principal cell. Luckily, you discover a commercially available, floxed Abca1 transgenic mouse model and a Cre-recombinase expressing mouse with the Cre gene downstream of the promoter for the water channel that is expressed in collecting duct principal cells (Aqp2).Questions:1) Describe the Cre/Lox system used to generate tissue-specific knockout mice.2) Reading about the Aqp2-Cre mouse model, you discover that the Aqp2 promoter also causes Cre expression in the vas deferens and testes of male mice. Since these tissues also express Abca1, you desire to avoid mating Aqp2-Cre males as they are infertile. Design a breeding scheme (hint: use Punnett squares) that will produce Aqp2-Cre and floxed Abca1 mice without breeding Aqp2-Cre expressing male mice. (Remember the Cre recombinase gene only needs to be present on one chromosome to function.)What are the ratios of different genotypes that this breeding scheme will produce?3) In question 2 above, which genotypes would serve as your controls for future experiments? Why?
You have been given a blue-colored solution and have been asked tomake a 1 in 10 dilution (D=0.1) to a final volume of 1mL. What volumes of blue-colored solution and buffer wi
Plants may be 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 or 70 cm high where plant high is under polygenic control. A true-breeding plant that is 10 cm is crossed to another true-breeding plant
Examine an animal that you can spend some time observing for at least 10 minutes. Prepare a brief ethogram (five behaviors at most), and classify them as appetitive or consu
In mice, black eyes (B) are dominant over red eyes (b) and short ears (S) are dominant over having a long floppy ears (s). A black eyed, short eared mouse is crossed with a
Recall that DNA is made from a sequence of four nucleotides that differ in terms of which nitrogen base A,T,G,C is present in each nucleotide. Suppose you have a region of DNA
The graph demonstrate the number of accurate copies of DNA produced by polymerase chain reaction. What can you conclude about cycles 18–26?
Drag the labels onto the graph to indicate which presynaptic neuron produced each change in the axon hillock's membrane potential. Assume that the same number of ligand-gated
Implicit in the stop-and-wait scenarios of Figure 2.19 is the notion that the receiver will retransmit its ACK immediately on receipt of the duplicate data frame. Suppose in
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