Process layouts, which are also known as functional layouts or job-shop layouts, involve grouping of all the similar equipment or functions (all the lathe machines in one area, all drilling machines in another area, and all assembling works in some other area). They are designed to accommodate variety in product designing and processing.
Process layouts mostly use general purpose machines that can be changed over rapidly to new operations for different product designs. The workers in process layouts must be highly skilled. They also require intensive job instructions and technical supervision. These layouts are able to change and adapt quickly to the multitude of operations to be performed on each unique batch of products.
Greater flexibility in production
Better and more efficient supervision is possible through specialization
Breakdown of equipment can easily be handled by transferring work to another machine
The capacity of different production lines can be expanded easily
Better utilization of men and machines is possible through this layout
Production requires more time as work-in-progress has to travel from one place to another place in search of machines
This type of layout requires more floor space and there might be difficulties in production
There will be accumulation of work at different production units
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