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Power Electronics Engineering

Power electronics can be termed as the art and science of converting electricity from one form to another. Power electronics deals with the control and conversion of electric power and is the application of solid state electronics for conversion and control of electric power. Electronic converters found their usage in conversion and modification of electrical energy. Thus, these are use wherever there is change in voltage, frequency or current. The conversion ranges from a few milliwatts (in mobile phone) to hundreds of megawatts (an hvdc transmission system). Electric currents and voltages are use to carry information in classical electronics. The same carry power in power electronics. Therefore the main metric of power electronics is its efficiency. Mercury arc valves were the first very high power electronic devices. Diodes, transistors and thysistors are the semiconductor switching devices which are used to perform conversions in modern systems. The power electronics also process substantial amount of energy in comparison to the electronic systems which are concerned with processing and transmission of data and signals. The ac/dc converter (also called as the rectifier), is one of the most widely found power electronic device which is contained in many consumer electronic devices as well. It is found in personal computers, television sets, battery chargers etc. The induction motor contains the variable speed drive, which is the example of electronic power device which is widely used in the industries. The power of the VSD range from a few hundred watt to tens of megawatts.

Power electronics originated at the beginning of this century. Some great books with power writing concepts were published between the time periods of 1930 to 1947. They contained lessons and chapters on the application of grid controlled gas filled tubes. As the gas filled thyratrons and mercury rectifier had limitations, the equipments were also manufactured in limits. Julius Lilienfeld disclosed the field effect principle in 1930. Another major development was the demonstration of point contact transistor by Walter H Brattain john Bardeen in 1947. The manufacturing of semiconductor electronics equipment began with the invention of bipolar junction transistor in1948 and in 1950 semiconductor diodes began appearing. Powerful FET development has spread world wide with the end of the decade of 1970. The type of input and obtained output decides the type of power conversion system. The rectifier converts ac to dc. The inverter converts dc to acidic to dc is converted by dc to dc converter and ac to ac is converted by ac to c converter. Energy saving has always been a priority for the engineers. The loss of energy by a [power electronic device should be minimum. The efficiency of a power electronic converter is also of prime importance. The product of the voltage across the device with the current through it gives the instantaneous dissipated power. Thus when the voltage or current is zero, the loss of power device is minimum. That is the loss is minimum when the device is in a off or on state. Considering these findings, the electronic power converter was built for the on or off device operating in the switching mode.burts of energy are transferred form the converter’s input to output.

Wide application of power electronic systems

1. dc to dc converters are used for mobile phones, PDA’s etc for maintaining their voltage at affixed value. These are also used for factor correction and electronic isolation.

2. The common electronic devices such as television sets, computers have built in rectifiers. These convert form ac to dc. They also change the voltage levels to overcome the fluctuating voltage.

3. The ac to ac converters change the frequency or the voltage level. It also finds its application in power distribution networks where they are used to exchange power between the utilities frequencies of 5o and 60 Hz power grids.

4. The dc to ac converters find their prime application in invertors and ups (the emergency lighting systems).during the availability of the mains, they charge the mains and when the main electricity fails, it produces the ac electricity form the dc battery.

Rectifiers can be further classified as controlled and UN controlled rectifiers. The controlled rectifiers are classifies as controlled and fully controlled rectifiers.