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Design of Steel Structure
Steel s the most common material used in the construction industry. It is used to provide a primary material for a building or structure and holds everything up and together. In comparison to plastic, timbre, wood and concrete, steal has numerous advantages. It is hundred percent recyclable. No twisting or warping occurs in steel and the changes in weather are unable to form any deformations in steel, hence no expansion or contraction occurs in steel because of temperature changes in atmosphere. It does not need time in curing like concrete. Steel also provides more strength in less weight and is more versatile. It definitely has an attractive appearance. It is of uniform quality and can be erected in any weather condition. The proven and timeless durability along with low life cycle costs and various other advantages make steel the most proffered choice of material used in construction.
The path of steel design and construction is time proven and predictable. Some steel structures require architectural inputs while other doesn’t. For example frames for mounting machinery and equipment marine terminals, offshore platforms, process plants, refineries and other non aesthetic structures do not require architectural inputs. After determining the architectural plan of a building, the framework design (beams, bracing columns etc.) proceeds by the use of engineering calculations.
When science and mathematics is applied to structural engineering, the process is called structural engineering. The structural engineer understands and predicts the structure of the steel by referencing to the buildings codes, studying the codes and recommendations of the American Institute of Steel Construction(ASIC) and also explores the empirical data which is derived form the various testing’s done on steel structures.
Categorization of structural steel design
The structural design steel framework is divided into three main areas which are the main members, secondary members and the connections.
The main member structural engineering includes beams, columns, trusses and girders. The main members carry the load which are imparted on the structure and are the primary structures.
The structural engineering of secondary members includes bracing, decking and stairs. They are designed in order to carry specific loads. For example a brace may be provided to an area which carries excess load.
Connections form the nodes and joints of structural elements and transfer forces between structural elements or members. By the use of connections sufficient steel area is provided at a node (point) where structural members of a structure meet, thus ensuring that the area can resist various stresses which might accumulate at that node. The accumulated stress can be bending moments, torsional loadings and axial loads. By the engineering calculations a record of final calculations is prepared which determines the size and types of all members along with their connection configuration. This record can be used for reanalyzing the design after a failure occurs and also to check whether the structural integrity of the framework is maintained for carrying new loads.
The results of the final designed must match the fabricated and erected design in the field.
Detailing, Fabrication and Erection
It is the process of conversion of the structural design drawings into shop drawings. By using the shop designs, the fabricator identifies every single piece of steel in the framework in terms of size, shape, and the grade of the material. The huge projects involving about 40,000 tons of steels in their framework and connections can comprise of around 30,000 individual pieces of steel. For economic reasons these detail pieces are fabricated in assemblies before being shipped to fields. Technological advances like CAD and electronic mail has now made detailing easier which was a pretty hard and arduous process earlier. The detailer decides which steel is of perfect fitting and should be purchased. Detailing can be done by both in house personnel and also by contacting an outside firm.
After detailing the process of fabrication is done. It is the burning, cutting, drilling, wielding, grinding, bending and punching of steel for producing the steel as per the detailed drawing standards, shape and size. The pieces thus formed are erected and connected together on the project site by using the shipped pieces.
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