Control Engineering, Control & Design Theory, Electrical Engineering

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Control System Engineering

The application of design theory to various design systems with predictable behaviors systems is called control system engineering or control engineering. The output performance of the device which is controlled is obtained by using sensors. The output is analyzed for getting feedback of the input actuator. Based on the feedback and analysis the desired performance is further improved. Control engineering plays a vital role in designing of vital control systems of various machineries and its application varies form household appliances to fighter aircrafts. It understands the physical systems, their inputs, outputs and various components by using mathematical modeling. These systems have their controllers designed by the control system design tools. The control theory is used by the analysis and controller design in various domains of time and frequency, which also depends on the nature of the design system. A system can be, biological, fluid, electrical, mechanical or financial.

The Ketsobios’s water clock in Alexandria is the first control device on record, which was found in Egypt at around 3rd Century B.C. Other automatic control systems were also found even two thousand years ago. Other worth mentioning control devices include the furnace temperature regulator, invented by Drebbel in 1620 and the fly ball governor used to regulate the speed of steam engine by James Watt in the year 1788. Maxwell theory was a pioneering step in the field of control theory. The findings were very convincing and dramatic and laid the foundation of the discipline of control theory.

Greater development in the optimal control area occurred in the decades of 1950 and 1960 and further progress was made in robust, stochastic, adaptive and optimal control systems in the decades of 1970’s and 80’s. Control systems and methodologies have made possible the space travel and the building of communications satellites, has deigned more efficient and safer aircrafts and cleaner and more efficient auto systems etc.

Control Theory and Systems

The control theory has two major divisions, the classical control theory and the modern control theory. The classical control theory has its application limited to the SISO system design, which is the single output and single input system. The frequency domain system analysis is carried out by transforming the complex s domain or by Laplace transform. In the time domain differential equations are used. All systems are single variable and of second order, and higher order systems along with multivariable are ignored. Because of the design approximations and limitations of the classical theory, a controller which is designed using the control theory needs on site tuning. But because they have easier physical implementations, they are widely used and preferred in industrial applications across industries.

The modern control theory has multi input-multi output (MIMO) system, and is carried out in the space state. The multi input output format helps in designing sophisticated control systems. Nonlinear, adaptive, multivariable and robust control theories come under modern control theory. Differential equations are used to represent a system for the first order which is defined by state variables.

Many view control theory as a subfield of electrical engineering though all control systems are not necessarily electric. Control theory models a diverse range of dynamic systems for a specific pattern of behavior. Control systems are implemented by digital signal processors, electrical circuits and micro controllers. Control theory ensures the working, functionality and stability of a machine. Some control systems work on feed back while others don’t. For example an open loop control of a washing machine is an example of non feedback control system. The washing machine does not use sensors and works on a predetermined cycle.