E = ε0 sin (ωt - Kx) B = B0 sin (ωt - Kx) are the electric and magnetic fields varying with distance x and time t in yZ plane. Such a combination of electric and magnetic fields is referred to as an electromagnetic wave in vacuum. The theory of electromagnetic waves was developed in 164 by Maxwell.
Maxwell's equations:- it is combination of four equations connecting electric and magnetic fields.
§E. ds = Q / ε0 gauss law in electrostatics.
§E . dl = - d∅mag / dt faraday's law
§B. Ds = 0 gauss law in magnetism.
§B. Dl = μ0ic + μ0id modified ampere's law
= μ0ic + με0 d∅ electric / dt
In vacuum ic = 0
§B. dl = μ0ε0d∅ electric /dt = μ0 id
Id = ε0 d∅ electric/dt = d(q inside)/dt
Properties of electromagnetic waves
Though these are produced due to variation of electric or magnetic fields but they themselves are not charged.
These are not deflected by electric or magnetic fields.
They travel with the speed of light c in vacuum.
They can pass through vacuum as no medium is required for their propagation.
They are only transverse in nature.
They affect photographic plates (blacken it if wavelength < IR).
Their rest mass is zero but they possess momentum.
They can be polarized.
Relation between E and B
ε0 = Boc and c = 1/μ0ε0
μ0 = 4π x 10-7 T - mA-1
ε0 = 8.85419 x 10-12 C2N-1 m2
Momentum p = U/C where U is energy U = m0c2 = m0c2 / c = m0c.
When the wave is reflected momentum changes from p to - p.
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