Before someone study electricity and magnetism, some general questions arises, one of very important from those is how fluids flow, because there are many analogies between this and electrical circuits. We defined the flow rate of a fluid to be the amount of fluid that is delivered, divided by how long it took to deliver it. Fluids flow downhill because this lowers their potential energy: a height difference between two ends of a pipe gives rise to a pressure difference that makes the fluid go. The flow rate is also affected by the size of the pipe or tube carrying the fluid. The electrical equivalents to these are the electrical current (measured in amperes); the current flows because there is a potential difference (measured in volts); and the size of the current is affected by the resistance of the wire.
Electrical current stays inside conductors (such as wires). In order for an electrical device to work there has to be a path for the current: a circuit. Some electrical devices only work when the current flows the right way.
There are many electrical concepts have been studied in this aspect. Some important ones are:
• Wires and conductors. If we wish to deliver a lot of power, we must use wires that are very good conductors.
• Resistors. These are elements that conduct, but not very well. They limit the current. Resistance is also the mechanism whereby electrical energy is converted into heat.
• Incandescent light bulbs. These are really just resistors. But they deliver power to a tiny wire that gets so hot that it glows.
• Switches. By connecting and disconnecting parts of a circuit, we can affect which parts are working.
• Batteries. These are devices for converting chemical energy into electrical energy.
• Light emitting diode. This is a kind of transistor, which turns electrical energy directly into light without having to make something hot. Because they are more efficient (and less bright) than the incandescent light bulb, they require less current to operate.
• Capacitor. This is a device for storing electrical energy. They can't hold as much energy as a battery of similar size, but they are rechargeable indefinitely.
• Electromagnet. A current gives rise to a magnetic field, which we can make bigger by making a coil and by wrapping it around a steel or iron object.
• Buzzer. The kind we have in our kit combines an electromagnet with a circuit to turn the magnet on and off. It is one of several ways to make sound using an electrical signal.
• Motor. By turning a magnet on and off, we can provide an alternating force that will make a rotor go around.
The above is the information on electricity now let us point out some views on magnetism. We found that there are materials that are themselves magnetic (permanent magnets), and materials that only become magnetic in the presence of other magnets. We can also produce a magnetic effect with a current carrying wire. A magnet gives rise to a field that surrounds them and which causes forces on other magnets, iron and steel objects, and current- carrying wires. The part of a magnet where the field emerges is called the N pole, and where the field enters the magnet is called the S pole. Magnets always have both N and S poles. It takes energy to make a magnetic field. We can use this idea to explain the magnetic force. When we turn off the current to an electromagnet, the magnetic energy will keep the current going briefly, and in the process may give rise to an unusually high voltage in the circuit or even a voltage in a different circuit.
Electricity is related to magnetism in several ways. A current gives rise to a magnetic field, and a magnetic field gives rise to a force on a current. A rapidly changing magnetic field gives rise to an electrical effect that will make currents flow.
Some of its main topics are:
1. Permanent magnets
2. Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction
3. Grouping of coils
4. Magnetic Flux
5. Self induction
6. Various methods of producing induced E.M.F
7. Electromagnetic Induction
8. Displacement current
9. Electromagnetic spectrum
10. History of electromagnetic waves
11. Main parts of electromagnetic spectrum
12. Facts of electromagnetic waves
13. Electromagnetic Wave
15. Comparison of electrical and magnetic forces
17. Force between two parallel conductors carrying current
18. Lorentz force
19. Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field
20. Moving coil galvanometer
22. Torque on a current carrying coil in a magnetic field
23. Velocity filter and mass spectrograph
25. Aurora boriolis
26. Forces in electric and magnetic field
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