Electromagnetic Spectrum Parts
The electromagnetic spectrum has been broadly classified into following main parts mentioned below in the order of increasing frequency.
1. Radio waves
These are the electromagnetic waves of frequency range from 5 X 105 Hz to 10 Hz. These waves are produced by oscillating electric circuits having an inductor and capacitor.
The various frequency ranges are use for different types of wireless communication systems as mentioned below
(i) The electromagnetic waves of frequency range from 530 KHz to 1710 KHz form amplitude modulated (AM) band. It is used in ground wave propagation.
(ii) The electromagnetic waves of frequency range 1710 KHz to 54 MHz are used for short wave bands. It is used in sky wave propagation.
(iii) The electromagnetic waves of frequency range 54 MHz to 890 MHz are used in television waves.
(iv) The electromagnetic waves of frequency range 88 MHZ to 108 MHz form frequency modulated (FM) radio band. It is used for commercial FM radio.
(v) The electromagnetic waves of frequency range 300 MHz to 000 MHz form ultra high frequency (UHF) band. It is used in cellular phones communication.
Microwaves are the electromagnetic waves of frequency range 1 GHz to 300 GHz they are produced by special vacuum tubes namely klystrons magnetrons and Gunn diodes etc.
(i) Microwaves are used in radar systems for air craft navigation.
(ii) A radar using microwave can help in detecting the speed of tennis ball cricket ball automobile while in motion.
(iii) Microwave ovens are used for cooking purposes.
(iv) Microwaves are used for observing the movement of trains on raps while sitting in microwave operated control room.
3. Infrared waves
Infrared waves were discovered by Herschel.
These are the electromagnetic waves of frequency range 3 x 1011 Hz to 4 X 1014 Hz. Infrared waves sometimes are called as heat waves. Infrared waves are produced by hot bodies and molecules. These waves are not detected by human eye but snakes can detect them.
Infrared waves are used
(i) In physical therapy to treat muscular strain.
(ii) To provide electrical energy to satellite by using solar cells.
(iii) For producing dehydrated fruits.
(iv) For taking photographs during the conditions of for smoke etc.
(v) In green houses to keep the plants warm
(vi) In revealing the secret writings on the ancient walls.
(vii) In solar water heaters and cookers
(viii) In weather forecasting through fanfare red photography
(ix) In checking the purity of chemicals and in the study of molecular structure by taking infra red absorption spectrum,
4. Visible light
It is the narrow region of electromagnetic spectrum which is detected by the human eye. Its frequency is ranging from 4x 10 Hz to 8 x 10 Hz it is produced due to atomic excitation.
The visible light emitted or reflected form objects around us provide the information about the world surrounding us.
5. Ultraviolet rays
The ultraviolet rays were discovered by Ritter in 1801. The frequency range of ultraviolet rays is 8 x 1014 Hz to 5 x 1017 Hz. The ultraviolet rays are produced by sun special lamps and very hot bodies most of the ultraviolet rays coming from sun are absorbed by the ozone layer in the earth's atmosphere. The ultraviolet rays in large quantity produce harmful effect on human beings.
Ultraviolet rays are used
(i) For checking the mineral samples through the property of ultraviolet rays causing florescence.
(ii) In the study of molecular structure and arrangement of electrons in the external shell through ultraviolet absorption spectra.
(iii) To destroy the bacteria and for sterilizing the surgical instruments.
(iv) In burglar alarm.
(v) In the detection of forged documents finger prints in forensic laboratory.
(vi) To preserve the food stuff.
6. X - rays
The X-rays were discovered by German physical W. roentgen. Their frequency range is 1016 Hz to 3 x 1021Hz. These are produced when high energy electrons are stopped suddenly on a metal of high atomic number X - rays have high penetrating power.
X - Rays are used
(i) In surgery for the detection of fractures, foreign bodies like bullets diseased organs and stones in the human body.
(ii) In engineering (i) for detecting faults cracks flaws and holes in final metal products (ii) for the testing of wildings castings and moulds.
(iii) In radio therapy to cure untraceable skin diseases and malignant growths
(iv) In detective departments (i) for detection of explosives opium gold and silver in the body of smugglers.
(v) In detective departments (i) for detection of pearls in oysters and defects in rubber tires gold and tennis balls etc. (ii) for testing the uniformity of insulating material.
(vi) In scientific research (i) for the investigation of structures of crystals arrangement of atoms and molecules in the complex substances.
7. Y - rays
y-rays are the electromagnetic waves of frequency range 3 X 1018 Hz 5 x 1022 Hz y - rays have nuclear origin. These rays are highly energetic and are produced by the nucleus of the radioactive substance.
Y - Rays are used
(i) In the treatment of cancer and tumors.
(ii) To preserve the food stuffs for a long time as the soft y - rays can kill microorganisms easily.
(iii) To produce nuclear reaction.
(iv) To provide valuable information about the structure of atomic nucleus.
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