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Define Regulation of intracellular Ca concentration?
The cytoplasmic calcium concentration is regulated by a series of calcium pumps, which either concentrate calcium ions within the intracellular storage sites or extrude them from the cells (where they flow in by diffusion). The physiology of calcium metabolism is primarily directed towards the maintenance of the concentration of ionized calcium in the ECF. This concentration is protected and maintained by a feedback loop through calcium receptors in the parathyroid glands, which control the secretion of parathyroid hormone.
This hormone increases the renal tubular re-absorption of calcium, promotes intestinal calcium absorption by stimulating the renal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D or calcitriol [1,25- (OH)2D], and, if necessary, resorbs bone. However, the integrity of the system depends critically on vitamin D status; if there is a deficiency of vitamin D, the loss of its calcaemic action leads to a decrease in the ionized calcium and secondary hyperparathyroidism and hypophosphataemia. This is why experimental vitamin D deficiency results in rickets and osteomalacia whereas calcium deficiency gives rise to osteoporosis.
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