Use of substance brdu in neurogenesis

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Reference no: EM131119088

1. ________________ measures blood flow to brain areas in the active brain.

Event-related potential

Positron emission tomography

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging

2. The myelin sheath insulates the ___________ so that the impulse travels more efficiently and strengthens the connection to adjacent neurons.

synapse

axon

serotonin

acetylcholine

3. Which of the following statements is true about the use of substance BrdU in neurogenesis?

It hampers research as it conceals neural growth from detection.

It is a non-radioactive substance and is risk free while conducting research on individuals.

It is used to track how aggressively cancerous tumors are growing among cancer patients.

It usually fails to identify new cells and hence is not helpful in studying neurogenesis.

4. Which of the following statements is true about the experiment conducted by Elizabeth Gould on neural growth among mammals?

The brain of the animals that lived in environmentally complex settings showed brain growth in areas important for thinking and feeling.

Higher rates of neurogenesis were found in animals that were reared in cages.

Stress resulted in more neurogenesis in mammals.

Impoverished environments resulted in more neurogenesis in mammals.

5. ______________ is used to record the electrical activity of the brain.

Magnetic resonance imaging

Electrocardiography

Electroencephalography

Magnetoencephalography

6. Neuroscientists conducted research with taxicab drivers in London and found that taxicab drivers, who are required to learn and navigate large areas of cities, had the _______________ that was larger than that of other drivers.

hippocampus

medulla

reticular formations

hypothalamus

7. The _______________ lobes make up the top and rear sections of the brain.

occipital

parietal

temporal

frontal

8. The all-or-none principle states that:

if a neuron is not used for a certain period of time, it will disintegrate.

only specific neurotransmitters will exert effects on some brain regions.

once the threshold has been crossed, an action potential either fires or it does not.

an individual has a dense concentration of mirror neurons or none at all.

9. The secondary form of inheritance via epigenetics is sometimes referred to as ______ inheritance.

blending

soft

traditional

hard

10. The ____________ is an important region of the frontal lobe and it descends from the top of the head toward the center of the brain

primary visual cortex

somatosensory cortex

primary motor cortex

auditory cortex

11. In the process of ___________, enzymes specific to that neurotransmitter bind with the neurotransmitter and destroy it.

enzyme reuptake

neurogenesis

enzymatic degradation

encoding

12. The adrenal glands produce _________, a class of chemicals that includes the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine.

sympathomimetics

catecholamines

phenethylamine

amphetamine

13. The ________________ is the part of the nervous system that comprises the brain and spinal cord.

autonomic nervous system

somatic nervous system

peripheral nervous system

central nervous system

14. As Salma views a famous Impressionist painting that is hung on a wall, her ___________ receive visual information about the art and carry this information to her brain.

sensory neurons

motor neurons

interneurons

mirror neurons

15. All of the systems that are aroused by the _____________ are relaxed by the ________________.

autonomic nervous system; sympathetic nervous system

parasympathetic nervous system; somatic nervous system

somatic nervous system; autonomic nervous system

sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system

16. The best-known and biggest functional difference between the cerebral hemispheres is in __________.

sound

sight

language

feel

17. The __________ potentials bring the neuron closer to threshold, while the _______ potentials bring it farther away from threshold.

inhibitory; actual

resting; excitatory

graded; resting

excitatory; inhibitory

18. At the end of the axon, at each synapse, is a(n) _________ containing tiny sacs of neurotransmitters.

synaptic vesicle

ion

terminal button

norepinephrine

19. What happened when Phineas Gage sustained an injury to his frontal lobes when he was shot through the head with an iron bar in a railroad accident?

He lost all motor functions on the right side of his body.

He lost his vision and sense of touch.

His personality changed.

He could identify objects in his left visual field but not in his right visual field.

20. The ____________ is a small, almond-shaped structure located directly in front of the hippocampus.

amygdala

cortex

cerebrum

parietal lobes

21. A(n)____________ is a large coiled molecule that contains genes.

DNA

allele

gamete

axon

22. The temporal lobes house the _______________.

primary motor cortex

auditory cortex

primary visual cortex

somatosensory cortex

23. ____________ studies allow researchers to assess how genetic differences interact with environment to produce certain behavior in some people but not in others.

Gemellology

Genome mapping

Gene-by-environment

Gene-by-behavior

24. After three-month-old Sayuri watches her father stick out his tongue, she sticks out her own tongue too. It is likely that ____________ neurons are involved in Sayuri's learning and imitation of this behavior.

olfactory

leukocyte

tactile

mirror

25. We see and imagine because of the functions of the __________.

occipital lobes

parietal lobes

temporal lobes

frontal lobes

26. Our perception of loudness is perceived by the ________ of a sound wave.

frequency

amplitude

timbre

pitch

27. The ________ is a thin layer of nerve tissue that lines the back of the eye.

pupil

retina

iris

lens

28. Ruth is at a junkyard looking for spare parts for her car. As she wanders through the rows of cars, she happens upon a particular car which has a familiar set of wheels, windshield, doors, hood, and trunk, and she realizes she is looking at her own model of car. This type of visual perception is known as _______.

atmospheric perspective

bottom-up processing

perceptual constancy

difference threshold

The blind spot of the eye:

28. is the visual complement of the retina.

contains no receptor cells.

controls the amount of light entering the eye.

has the highest concentration of cones in the retina.

30. Which of the following is true of the papillae at the center of the human tongue?

They contain no taste cells and therefore can taste nothing.

They are responsible for processing sweet taste.

They are responsible for processing sour taste.

They are responsible for processing umami.

31. What is a difference threshold?

It is the smallest amount of change between two stimuli that a person can detect half of the time.

It is the process by which the brain organizes and interprets sensory experience.

It is the highest amount of physical stimulation that an individual can detect half of the time.

It is the lowest level of a physiological stimulus that humans can sense half of the time.

32. We see images with the greatest clarity when they are focused on the _______.

lens

iris

fovea

retina

33. The Gestalt tendency to group like objects together is known as _______.

continuity

similarity

proximity

closure

34. Processing in which perception of the whole guides perception of smaller elemental features is called _______.

top-down processing

perceptual constancy

opponent process theory

atmospheric perspective

35. ________ is the study of how people psychologically perceive physical stimuli such as light, sound waves, and touch.

Psychoanalysis

Psychophysics

Psychogenesis

Psycho-perceive

36. Which part of a person's eyes are photoreceptors that help her see the path in front and the trees around her when she is walking in the woods at night?

The lens

The cones

The rods

The pupils

37. ________ ensures that we notice changes in stimulation more than stimulation itself.

Perception

Sensory adaptation

Convergence

Accommodation

38. The ________ sends information either directly to the smell-processing areas in the cortex or indirectly to the cortex by way of the thalamus.

corpus callosum

olfactory bulb

hypothalamus

limbic system

39. ________ occurs when a person experiences sensations in one sense when a different sense is stimulated.

Allochiria

Myopia

Synesthesia

Presbyopia

40. Nate is farsighted. Which of the following happens to visual images focused on his retina?

Images focus behind the retina.

Images focus in front of the retina.

Images focus in the center of the retina.

Images focus on the top of the retina.

41. Atmospheric perspective:

primarily involves parallel lines that converge or come together the farther away they are from the viewer.

comes from looking across a vast space into the distance in the outdoors.

depends on the location of the eyes in the head.

is seen in 3D technology in movie theatres that uses polarizing filters.

42. Jay studies psychophysics. In his laboratory, he conducts experiments that study _______.

the role of genetics in animal behavior

the cognitions of individuals while they exercise

how mental illnesses or behavioral disturbances may be due to psychological cause

how individuals psychologically perceive physical stimuli

43. Which of the following describes Weber's law?

Muscles control the shape of the eye's lens to adjust to viewing objects at different distances.

What an individual sees and hears is completely dependent on her or his perception and desire.

The size of a just noticeable difference in stimuli perception is a constant fraction of the intensity of the stimulus.

The texture of a surface becomes more tightly packed together and dense as the surface moves to the background.

44. Transduction can be defined as:

the stimulation of our sense organs by the outer world.

the act of organizing and interpreting sensory experience.

the diminishing ability of sensory adaptation.

the conversion of physical into neural information.

45. The trichromatic theory explains processing at the retina or cone, of which there are three types. The ________ explains more about how cells in the LGN of the thalamus and visual cortex process color information.

gate control theory

signal detection theory

apparent motion theory

opponent process theory

46. ________ in the visual cortex analyze the retinal image and respond to specific aspects of shapes, such as angles and movements.

Feature detectors

Photoreceptors

Olfactory neurons

Glial cells

47. In which part of the brain do the signals from taste and smell meet?

Lateral geniculate nucleus

Corpus callosum

Nucleus accumbens

Orbitofrontal cortex

48. The scale for a sound's loudness is _______.

amps

hertz

ohms

decibels

49. ________ are photoreceptors that are responsible for color vision and are most functional in conditions of bright light.

Cones

Rods

Lenses

Fovea

50. Which of the following is a theory of color vision that can account for the color afterimage of the American flag as well as help explain some instances of color blindness?

Signal detection theory

Opponent process theory

Gate control theory

Trichromatic color theory

Reference no: EM131119088

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