The philosophy of nietzsche-accreditation for programs

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1. When people are just concerned with compliance with laws or professional standards (e.g. codes of ethics), what level of ethics is involved?
a. aspirational
b. mandatory
c. principled
d. unprincipled

2. Which one of the following statements is NOT CONSISTENT with the philosophy of Nietzsche?
a. the theory of evolution
b. we should be assisting the development of survival of the fittest
c. we should be directed by pity

d. the weak and the failures should perish

3. When there is a discussion of "theory" as related to judgments of right and wrong, the discussion is probably one of:
a. philosophical morality
b. professional ethics
c. common morality
d. philosophical ethics
e. none of the above

4. Which of the following is NOT listed in your text as part of the professional structure which governs ethics for counselors?
a. the courts
b. colleges and universities
c. professional organizations that maintain and enforce a mandatory code of
ethics
d. professional regulatory bodies that are enforcers of mandatory codes
e. none of the above

5. There are different types of accreditation. Beyond a college or university's accreditation to offer degrees, there is accreditation for programs, typically
called:
a. diplomate accreditation
b. professional accreditation
c. specialty accreditation
d. board approval

6. The oldest and most widely recognized professional counseling specialty designation is the credential.
a. A.C.A.
b. ABPS
c. C.R.C.C.
d. C.R.C.
e. M.F.T.

7. A voluntary means for professionals to identify themselves as trained and qualified specialists is:
a. licensure
b. certification
c. internship
d. accreditation
e. none of the above

8. Which professional(s) can NOT legitimately, by nature of standard training and practice, perform psychometric assessment?
a. social worker
b. counselor
c. psychologist
d. marriage and family therapist
e. none of the above

9. The ABPP and ABPS credential applies to which field of mental health specialty?
a. Marriage and Family Therapy
b. Psychology
c. Psychiatry
d. Social Work
e. Psychiatric Nursing

10. Which of the following degrees does NOT indicate legitimate doctoral level training to be a licensed Psychologist?
a. Ph.D.
b. Ed.D.
c. Psy.D
d. none of the above

11. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
a. Counselors can ethically practice any specialty in counseling, even without appropriate specialty training, if it is within the scope of practice of their license.
b. Cottone and Tarvydas believe the terms "dual" and "multiple" relationships should be abandoned.
c. Avoiding detrimental relationships with clients relates to the ethical principle of justice more than nonmaleficence.
d. People who refuse recommended counseling services must be coerced.

12. When a judge orders an ex offender to undergo therapy as part of the ex- offender's rehabilitation, this is called:
a. expert order of protection
b. compulsory therapy
c. professional responsibility
d. legal privilege

13. Professional competence by definition involves:
a. the quality of provided services
b. boundaries of professional activity
c. confidentiality
d. informed consent
e. a and b

14. Having sex with a client is:
a. unethical counseling practice
b. only allowed after the client and therapist relationship has been terminated for at least one year
c. acceptable with a written agreement and a waiver of ethical rights
d. none of the above

15. The Tarasoff decision refers to what?
a. The duty of an ethics board to suspend licensure after a clear ethics violation.
b. The duty of a therapist to keep confidentiality even when called as a witness in court cases.
c. The duty of a therapist to break confidentiality when someone makes a direct threat.
d. none of the above

16. A counselor's primary responsibility is to the:
a. third party if they are the ones paying the bill
b. judge who subpoenas a case file
c. family of a competent adult client seen in individual counseling
d. client, and the client only
e. all of the above

17. The term that pertains to the legal right of clients to prevent their confidential communications from being revealed in legal proceedings is:
a. privacy
b. confidentiality
c. privileged communication
d. informed consent

18. When assessing a client's potential for harm, Beauchamp and Childress recommend the counselor assess primarily which element(s)?
a. probability of harm
b. physical vs. psychological nature of harm
c. magnitude of harm
d. both a and c are correct

19. According to Welch (2003), one of the most common types of malpractice liability in treatment services for mental health professionals is:
a. fraudulent billing
b. dual relationships
c. family treatment and forensic situations
d. group counseling

20. Which of the following conditions is NOT a required element of informed consent?
a. capacity
b. voluntariness
c. comprehension
d. literacy

21. ____________ law addresses conduct required by or prohibited by all individuals and is enforced by governmental legal authorities.
a. Professional
b. Case
c. Civil law
d. Criminal

22. Client values determine the ________________ of counseling.
a. content
b. level of progress
c. process
d. all of the above

23. Counselor values tend to determine the ____________ of counseling.
a. process
b. content
c. level of professionalism
d. rate of progress

24. Principle ethics can be said to be based primarily upon which of the following?
a. western culture
b. religion
c. male-oriented worldview
d. all of the above
e. a and c only

25. Why has the ethics of care approach been criticized?
a. The focus is primarily societal with lack of concern for the individual.
b. Application is limited to the health sciences.
c. There is a lack of a coherent definition.
d. all of the above

26. The ethical decision-making model introduced by Cottone is based upon what theoretical model?
a. general psychologically based models
b. post-positivism
c. social constructivism
d. none of the above

27. Ethical decision making models often provide a series of steps for making an ethical choice, however they may fail to describe which of the following:
a. the consequences that can occur when an ineffective course of action is taken
b. how the choice in a specific course of action occurs (an exploratory frame work for the decision process itself)
c. how values are weighed by the decision maker
d. all of the above

28. According to the social constructivism process in ethical decision making, when consensualizing fails, then parties may engage in reflective interaction to ___________.
a. accomplish an agreement on the decision to be made
b. determine whether arbitration should be undertaken
c. be able to make the decision on their own
d. hold firm to their original position

29. Ethical dilemmas are a(n):
a. sign of the importance of professional judgment
b. failure of ethical codes
c. affirmation that one is "practicing" a profession
d. only a and c of the above
e. all of the above

30. Hare argued that the intuitive level of everyday decision making was not sufficient and is superceded by another level of moral decision making. What is that level?
a. reflective
b. critical thinking
c. consultative
d. fact finding

31. Cottone's model of ethical decision making is based on:
a. purely social-relational model
b. purely relational theory
c. ethical principles
d. psychologically-based ethical decision making

32. When colleagues engage in bullying, harassment, or emotional abuse of an individual within the workplace, this would be described as:
a. a normal difference of opinion that occasionally occurs within a workplace
b. individuals who are experiencing conflict due to holding similar values
c. relational issues that are normal when people work closely with one an other
d. a case of mobbing within an organizational culture
e. all of the above

33. Several states have acknowledged that mental injury can result from excessive stress on the job and this phenomenon has been called:
a. occupational mental injury
b. overstress syndrome
c. organizational mental injury
d. mental health injury

34. At present there are several corporations that are establishing company policies that support an individual's right to be employed in an environment that is free from mobbing.
a. false, it would never work
b. false that is something for the future
c. true, this is happening at present
d. none of the above are correct

35. Professional roles within an organizational culture are constructed in response to which of the following?
a. professional practices
b. institutional expectations
c. personal needs
d. both a and b are correct
e. all of the above

36. Pro bono publico refers to what?
a. working as a counselor for the state, or county and serving the general public
b. being an expert witness at a criminal trial
c. serving a client at no charge
d. none of the above
e. a spanish speaking counselor

37. It is standard practice to destroy case records generally _______ years after services have been terminated.
a. 10-12
b. 4-6
c. 8-10
d. none of the above

38. Regarding the ethical issues surrounding complimentary and alternative medicine, which of the following statements is true?
a. The current status quo does not include a "don't ask/don't tell" approach.
b. Managed care typically never reimburses for CAMs.
c. CAM advocates may be denying the role of traditional medicine.
d. Individuals who choose CAMs as a treatment forfeit their right to autonomy.

39. Areas of major ethical concern in working with people with HIV include:
a. stigma
b. informed consent
c. confidentiality
d. both b and c are correct

40. A rehabilitation counselor working for a managed care company is concerned about the limitations the company is placing on the treatment of the clients they are seeing. The next time this counselor sees a client, they place a more severe diagnosis in the clients chart in an attempt to obtain an increased number of counseling sessions. This behavior is unethical and is considered which of the following?
a. downcoding
b. underdiagnosing
c. bartering
d. bono publico
e. overdiagnosing

41. Passive euthanasia would best be defined as:
a. rational suicide
b. intentional termination of life
c. mercy killing
d. none of the above

42. The study of the entire set of human genes, the assembly of the gene sequence, gene expression and the relationship between different gene sequences is called:
a. genomics
b. genetics
c. human genome project
d. genetic decoding
e. none of the above

43. A type of test administration that especially does not transfer well to computerized assessment is:
a. vocational interest testing
b. aptitude testing
c. personality testing
d. none of the above

44. According to the text, which of the following is (are) the most likely reason(s) why counselors may not purchase adequate computer safety systems to protect client data?
a. ignorance
b. presumed unlikelihood of unethical file disclosure
c. amount of installation time required
d. a and b only
e. all of the above

45. HIPPA rules require that the counselor disclose policies related to the use and disclosure of protected health information and that this occur:
a. within 24 hours of the first treatment contact
b. within 48 hours of the first treatment contact
c. within a week of the first treatment contact
d. none of the above

46. The ethical codes of APA and ACA require computer assisted assessment software developers to provide empirical evidence of safety and effectiveness prior to making claims as to the effectiveness of their product. What is the situation regarding ethical standards on the provision of evidence before developers of self-help or therapeutic software market this material?
a. They must provide evidence of superior results when compared to in-vivo counseling.
b. They must provide evidence of training for counselors prior to use.
c. They must provide evidence of safety and effectiveness.
d. No evidence of safety and effectiveness is required.

47. As defined by NBCC and others, the practice of professional counseling and information delivery that occurs when the client(s) and counselor are in separate or remote locations and utilize electronic means to communicate over the Internet is best defined as:
a. techno intervention
b. web therapy
c. web counseling
d. unethical

48. These terms are outdated and possibly harmful concepts, but were previously used in counselor training programs several decades ago.
a. minority
b. race
c. multiculturalism
d. a and b only
e. none of the above

49. The tendency to treat others relative to one's own cultural perspective with an apparent disregard for cultural differences is called:
a. cultural bias
b. cultural deficit
c. multiculturalism
d. none of the above

50. As a counselor you provide counseling services to individuals from different cultures than your own. You would be providing this type of counseling:
a. cultural
b. client centered
c. transcultural
d. cross-cultural

51. As a second generation Polish American counselor in a rural mental health center that serves a primarily Hispanic population you are frequently involved in helping relationships with individuals who have a socially constructed worldview that differs from your own. You would be providing this type of counseling:
a. multicultural
b. transcultural
c. bi-cultural
d. client centered
e. none of the above

52. A professional advocacy issue related to social justice of which counselors need to be aware when examining data obtained from the U.S. Census of 2000 is the:
a. identification of single race only status
b. exclusion of Asian populations as a racial category
c. inclusion of three or more races category
d. exclusion of Latino populations as a racial category

53. Due to the lack of clarity in professional codes of ethics related to multicultural situations, counselors may find themselves faced with engaging in:
a. responsible disobedience
b. dual relationships
c. illegal activity
d. immoral activity
e. both a and d

54. A counselor who utilizes the terms culturally disadvantaged or cultural deficit may cause harm by:
a. using terms that are stigmatizing and cause emotional damage
b. placing a psychological assignment on individuals or a group that may impact their perceived ability to meet or exceed members of a dominate group
c. causing the counselor to have increased and inappropriate expectations of a client
d. all of the above

55. Imperative to the field of marriage and family therapy is the idea of:
a. psychoanylitic theory
b. the ‘traditional' family
c. systemic relationships
d. all of the above

56. Which association has the "clinical member" category of membership?
a. APA
b. IAMFC
c. ACA
d. AAMFC
e. none of the above

57. The idea of was affirmed by the Declaration of Helsinki, after Nazi doctors at concentration camps were found to have done harmful experiments on ethnic groups.
a. informed consent
b. confidentiality
c. moral responsibility
d. the Hippocratic Oath
e. none of the above

58. Which is NOT one of the interventions that school counselors use to provide direct services in their school?
a. counseling
b. collaboration with teachers
c. coordination
d. consultation
e. none of the above

59. Arnold v. Board of Education of Escambia County (1989) was a court decision regarding what?

a. a counselor having inappropriate sexual relations with a student
b. a counselor giving a student advice on abortion
c. a counselor withholding information about a threat which was made from
a client towards another person which resulted in that person's death
d. a counselor failing to notify authorities of a student's intent of suicide
e. none of the above

60. In determining what action a counselor should take in ethical dilemmas presented by potentially detrimental relationships, which step to come to a conclusion is NOT listed in your text?
a. Think carefully
b. Consult the necessary codes and experts
c. Identify the ethical issues
d. Temporarily suspend the relationship until a conclusion is made
e. none of the above

61. Which of the following activities potentially could be viewed as an instance of self harm?
a. reckless sexual behavior
b. cult membership
c. eating disorder
d. all of the above are correct
e. only a and c are correct

62. Which statement is true regarding the federal regulations about minor students and substance abuse treatment?
a. The student may go though the entire treatment process without the parents' knowledge.
b. Parents automatically must be notified of the student's enrollment in treatment, but not progress.
c. Parents must be notified of the student's enrollment only if the parent requests this information.
d. none of the above is correct

63. A mental status examination:
a. involves placing electrodes on the individual's scalp to monitor brain activity
b. involves feeling the individual's scalp to assess lumps or bumps that may indicate over development of the brain
c. is a structured interview designed to promote raising the person's status to a higher mental level
d. is a structured interview designed to provide a controlled interpersonal setting for the emergence of signs and symptoms of a mental disorder

64. The organization most representative of the mental health counselor's interests is the:
a. AMCAH
b. ACA
c. NBCC
d. AAMFT
e. none of the above

65. As per your text, which is NOT one of the roles of the mental health counselor?
a. rehabilitation
b. remediation of maladaption
c. improving quality of life
d. prevention of problems
e. none of the above

66. Which of the following is NOT one of the three core factors in vocational choice?
a. knowledge of occupations
b. the ability to understand relationships between self and information about occupations
c. effective decision making skills
d. clear self understanding

67. To practice career counseling according to the minimum ethical standards established by NCDA, counselors must demonstrate proficiency in:
a. rehabilitation counseling
b. psychoanalysis and psychotherapy
c. career counseling competencies
d. psychoanalysis
e. all of the above

68. This is granted only through statute and legal precedent and the types of professionals covered by this privilege vary by jurisdiction.
a. confidentiality
b. privileged communication
c. therapeutic communication
d. counseling relationship

69. According to Pope (1999) when clients first present for career counseling it is important to assess how much involvement both the _________________ is (are) needed by the client in their decision making process.
a. extended family and community
b. potential employer and former employer
c. significant other and children
d. former employer and family
e. none of the above

70. As a counselor, if the ethical values at your place of employment are in conflict with your professional ethics, what should you do?
a. Stay on the job because there are some things you cannot change.
b. Seriously consider resigning from your position.
c. Talk with your co-workers about their thoughts.
d. Nothing, for there is nothing you can do about corporate culture.

71. The person who is credited historically with defining practice in the field of career or vocational guidance is:
a. Talcott Parsons
b. Parson Talcott
c. Parson Frank
d. none of the above

72. Clients of career counselors who are members of the NCDA (and thereby bound by the NCDA Ethical Standards), but who receive career counseling in schools, colleges or universities where the counselor is not required to be licensed by the state, should be primarily concerned with limits of:
a. privacy
b. responsibility
c. maintenance of records
d. privileged communication
e. none of the above

73. Related to privileged communication and group counseling, privileged communication:
a. may not stand, depending on the wording of the relevant statutes and case law
b. historically has been respected in group counseling
c. can be guaranteed in all cases with a licensed professional
d. prevents gossip about cases to uninvolved third parties in informal settings

74. If a group of minors is being counseled, the parents of the minors:
a. must respect the counselor/client privilege of confidentiality
b. have the right to information about the nature and content of counseling
c. have the right to attend a group session as a chaperone

d. all of the above

75. CRCC provides code of ethics enforcement for which of the following?
a. individual members of ACA and ARCA
b. individuals who hold the CRCC certification
c. individual members of NRA and NRCA
d. individuals who hold the CRC certification

76. If the counselor holds the culturally dominant high level of value regarding traditional work, he or she may not react positively to individuals who wish to work in which area?
a. factory settings
b. in-home as caregivers
c. only part time to pursue avocational interests
d. all of the above
e. b and c only

77. The collaborative consortium of key rehabilitation counseling professional organizations formed in 2004 is the:
a. Alliance for Rehabilitation Counseling
b. American Rehabilitation Counselors United
c. National Rehabilitation Association
d. Rehabilitation Counseling Consortium

78. The two major professional organizations for rehabilitation counselors are:
a. ARCAA and NRCA
b. APA and ARCA
c. ARCA and NRCAA
d. ARCAA and NRC
e. none of the above

79. According to the CRC code of ethics, counselors are discouraged from having any sexual relationships with former clients, however the code does bar such a relationship before what period of time has passed?
a. 1 year
b. 3 years
c. 5 years
d. 10 years
e. sexual relationships are NEVER allowed with former clients

80. Addictions counseling requires:
a. no training at all if one is a recovering addict
b. a graduate degree in psychology with a focus on addictions
c. only a license (to practice ethically)
d. a Bachelor's degree
e. none of the above

81. This organization is the largest organization serving addiction counselors, educators, and other health care professionals who deal with addiction.
a. NAADAC
b. APA
c. ACA
d. NAADC
e. none of the above

82. Twelve-step group members are:

a. required by law to maintain confidentiality
b. involved in groups directed and facilitated by professional counselors
c. required by law to avoid dual relationships
d. none of the above

83. The 12-step approach of Alcoholics Anonymous has been:
a. discredited by the majority of professionals because of the religious nature of the program
b. shown to be most effective when combined with professional interventions
c. proven to be effective only in the treatment of alcoholism, but not with other addictions
d. none of the above

84. What is the NBCC specialty designation for counseling professionals who work primarily with addiction?
a. MAC
b. NBCCA
c. NAADAC
d. none of the above

85. How many elements MUST be included to make a consent to release information form valid?
a. 4
b. 6
c. 8
d. 10
e. none of the above

86. Which is NOT a setting listed in your text where substance abuse treatment may be delivered?
a. outpatient setting
b. residential
c. alternative health clinic
d. none of the above

87. How many of the criteria for substance dependence must be present for the diagnosis of alcohol or drug dependence?
a. two
b. four
c. six
d. none of the above

88. Which is NOT one of the requirements for the Master Addiction Counselor credential?
a. 500 hours of substance abuse training
b. 3 years of full-time supervised experience in the field
c. Passing score on the nation exam
d. Doctoral degree
e. none of the above

89. A counselor is supervising a student counselor providing services in a community mental health center. They have open communication and review the student's case files on a daily and weekly basis. The student had a client he felt had the potential for suicide, however he didn't know what to do. He asked his supervisor for advice. The supervisor informed him that he had worked with this client for an extensive period of time and the client had demonstrated manipulative attention seeking behaviors with various personnel employed at the agency. The client winds up committing suicide by jumping off a freeway overpass, and in the process kills an innocent driver. The victim's family, upon learning the jumper had threatened suicide before decides to bring charges against the mental health center. Who is ultimately responsible for failing to protect the client from harm to himself?
a. the student
b. the supervisor
c. both the student and the supervisor equally
d. ultimately the supervisor but also the student
90. On an internship a male student is being supervised by a female. On a consistent basis the supervisor makes remarks in a joking manner that focus on the student's bulging muscles, gorgeous tanned skin, physique and other personal qualities. The student feels as if he is in a difficult situation since he doesn't want to fail his internship but feels uncomfortable about the comments his supervisor frequently makes. This student is being confronted with:
a. sexual assault
b. sexual harassment
c. dual relationship
d. no professional restrictions to date his supervisor

91. To reduce the potential for ethical conflicts to occur within supervision, a supervisor can:
a. use professional disclosure statements
b. supervise only in a group setting
c. develop formal supervision plans
d. both a and c are correct]

92. Which of the following is (are) effective suggestions for supervisors to consider to avoid malpractice lawsuits?
a. possess appropriate knowledge, skill and work habits
b. foster healthy, respectful relationships
c. have keen knowledge of self
d. all of the above

93. To be considered a qualified clinical supervisor, individuals in the field are required to:
a. complete 12 semester hours of graduate-level coursework in supervision
b. be a licensed clinician for a period of at least 10 years
c. have a Doctoral degree
d. a and b only
e. none of the above

94. A student counselor is providing services to a client and audiotapes each of the sessions for individual review with their supervisor and group review with their fellow students. The client was not informed that their counselor was a student in training or of the purpose of the audiotaping. The supervisor and supervisee have violated which of the following?
a. client informed consent
b. client confidentiality
c. supervisee confidentiality
d. both a and b are correct

95. The ACS identifies ______ content areas that training in clinical supervision must include.
a. 5
b. 9
c. 13
d. 26

96. Related to potential ethical situations, supervisors often have which of the following concerns?
a. Most code of professional ethics have limited information regarding supervision.
b. The supervisor must constantly examine the ethical issues that impact both the client and the supervisee.
c. Regulations for clinical supervisors provided are ambiguous from a legal perspective.
d. both a and b are correct

97. Which is NOT one of Handelsman's seven themes of positive ethics?
a. values and virtues
b. sensitivity and integration
c. ethics as innate self-care
d. ethical reasoning and decision making
e. none of the above

98. After a hearing, a license board makes a decision which could include consequences. Which of the following is NOT a consequence as listed in your text?
a. paying a fine
b. revocation of a license
c. probation
d. reprimand
e. none of the above

99. Which of the following sources of ethical information has been given the highest rating by certified counselors?
a. ACA ethical code
b. ACA Ethics Committee
c. ACA Journal of Counseling and Development
d. all of the above
e. a and c only

100. Licensure and certifying bodies will keep complaints of ethical misconduct confidential, unless:
a. the complainant formally requests public revelation of the complain.
b. it is a case of sexual misconduct, in which case there is always revelation of a complaint.
c. the jurisdiction requires hearings of such complaints open to the public.
d. never, they are always open to the public throughout the United States.

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