Relation between voluntary and involuntary reflex movement

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Q1. If the ATP synthase molecules were at random oriented so that about half of the molecules faced the outside of the vesicle and half of the molecules faced the inside, could you expect ATP to be synthesized? If the bacteriorhodopsin molecules were randomly oriented, would you expect ATP to be synthesized? Give details about the answers.

Q2. Sometimes, while it is difficult to initiate a knee-jerk reflex by tapping the patellar tendon, a patient will be asked to voluntarily make a fist. Next the reflex will be easily evoked. What does this show about the relation between voluntary and involuntary reflex movement?

Reference no: EM135795

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