Case study on salmonella outbreaks in the u.s.

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Reference no: EM131493

Every year, approximately 42,000 cases of salmonellosis are recored in the United States. Due to many milder cases are not diagnosed or reported, the actual number of infections can be twenty-nine or more times greater. It is calculated that approximately 400 persons die each year with acute salmonellosis. A small number of persons with Salmonella develop pain in their joints, irritation of the eyes, and painful urination. This is known as reactive arthritis. It will last for months or years, and can lead to chronic arthritis which is difficult to treat. Antibiotic treatment does not make a difference in whether or not the person develops arthritis.

1) Explain the full Chain of Infection for Salmonella.

a. Agent(s):
b. Reservoir(s):
c. Exit/Transmission/Entry:
d. Host Susceptibility:

2) Find and add the most current CASE DEFINITION for Salmonellosis.

3) The MMWR Notifiable Diseases - U.S., 2011, to answer these questions about the descriptive epidemiology of Salmonella morbidity in the US. Support your answers by adding some data comparisons from this source.

a. Is it seasonal? If so, what is its seasonality?
b. Is it geographically specific?
c. What is the term trend (2004 -2011) in Reported Cases per year?

4) There are presently two active US outbreaks of Salmonella involving live poultry. Much of the exposure is coming from backyard pets and small suburban flocks of chickens and ducks.To show the source of salmonella in these livestock, the CDC has been randomly testing chicks and ducklings at the sources for these livestock: farm stores and mail-order livestock suppliers. Twelve suppliers were randomly selected in each category and 100 chicks or ducklings were tested per site. There are the data for the number of positive tests per 100 livestock tested per supplier:

Mail-Order:5, 7, 6, 3, 6, 4, 5, 2, 6, 8, 6, 7
Farm Stores:8, 3, 6, 7, 3, 4, 8, 7, 3, 2, 8, 6

4a. Prepare a Frequency Table for BOTHsources[4pts]

4b. Evaluate, compare, and interpret the subsequent for BOTHsources. You MUST show your full computations for credit:

i. Meanand Mode of infected livestock
ii. Confidence Intervals
iii. For which source are we most confident that our tests results can be inferred to similar sources? How do you know?
iv. Toward which sourceshould the CDC direct itsregulatory efforts? Why?

Reference no: EM131493

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