Data communication and Networking

Computer Science >> Data communication and Networking

Computer networking is a process of connecting many computers which are located at different places. In computer networking one, two or more computers are connected to each other with a medium or data communication devices are used for sharing the resources, send or receive data etc. In computer networking, those systems which provides resources to another system is known as server or those systems that uses the resources is called as node. There are different many kinds of network available like LAN, WAN, MAN etc.

WAN (Wide Area Network): WAN is stands here for wide area network. Wan is a type of network that covering large area of network which is connected through telephone lines or radio waves. Internet is an example of WAN.

LAN (Local Area Network): LAN is stands here for Local area network. This type of network covers small areas of network like buildings, school etc.

Communication Protocols: Communication protocols are the rules or regulations which are followed while transforming the data from one system to another system. The examples of some popular protocols are as FTP, HTTP, POP, SMTP, TCP/IP, Ethernet, MNP, Xmodem, etc.

For the efficiency purpose and for error free transmission, protocols perform some following functions these are:

Data Routing: Data Routing is the process of finding the most easily and efficient route between source and destination before transmitting the data.

Data Sequencing: In Data Sequencing the large message is divided into smaller packets of fixed size.

Error Control: Error Control is the transmission of data without any error.

Flow Control: Flow Control is the process of regulating the rate of transmission of data between fast sender and slow receiver.

Data Transmission Mode: There are different modes of data transmission like Half-duplex, Full-duplex, simplex etc.

Half-Duplex: In half-duplex mode the transmission of data takes place in both directions but only one at a time.

Full-Duplex: In Full-duplex the transmission of data goes in both directions at the same time. Example of Full-Duplex is telephone line.

Simplex: In simplex mode of data transmission the data goes in one direction. In this process the flow of information is Uni-directional.

Communication media: Communication media is use to transfer the data from one place to another. There are different types of communication media are used that is:

Coaxial Cables: For long distance data communication coaxial cables are used because they send the data faster in speed. Coaxial cable consists of central copper wire which is surrounded by insulation over that copper mesh is placed.

Wire Pairs: For short distance data communication wire pairs are used like as local data communication. In this type, the wires pair is twisted together. They are made up of copper.

Network Topologies: The different types of arrangement of computer system are known as topology.

Some of the topologies are Ring, Bus, or Star etc.

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