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Introduction to Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics refers flow of heat, deals with change in energy physical as well as chemical processes. The term thermodynamics is usually used for chemical reactions, which helps in determining the extent to which process can proceed before attainment equilibrium.

Theory of thermodynamics is based on two generalized laws


1. First Law of Thermodynamics
2. Second Law of Thermodynamics

Terms involved in thermodynamics


Specified portion of matter, separated from rest of universe with a bounding surface, which consist of one or more than one substances.


The rest of the universe which might be in a position to exchange energy and matter with the system is called the surroundings.

Classification of System

(i) Isolated system

Isolated System defined as a system which neither exchange energy nor matter with its surrounding.

(ii) Open system

Open System is defined as system which exchange energy and matter with its surrounding. .

(iii) Closed system

Closed System is defined as a system which can exchange energy but can’t exchange matter with its surrounding.

Macroscopic properties

Macroscopic system defined as a system that consists large number of particles and the properties associated with system is called macroscopic properties.

These are microscopic properties are

a. Pressure
b. Volume
c. Temperature
d. Composition
e. Density etc.

Extensive Properties: Depends on the amount of substance present in system, i.e mass, energy and volume

Intensive Properties: independent from amount of substance in system. i.e. temperature, density, concentration, pressure, surface tension, viscosity etc.

State of System

Every system is defined with a state. If microscopic properties change then system state is changed, thus the state of system is fixed by microscopic properties.

State variables

A system state changed due to change in any microscopic property of system. Thus these microscopic properties are called state variables.


Topics Covered in Thermodynamics Chemistry

Introduction to Thermodynamics
Terms Involved in Thermodynamics
Classification of System
Macroscopic Properties
State of System
Thermodynamics Equilibrium
Definition of Process and Different Types
Reversible and Irreversible Process
Energy, Internal Energy, Enthalpy
Laws of Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics
Limitation of First Law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Change in Entropy
Third Law of Thermodynamics
Change in internal energy of a reaction
Exothermic and Endothermic Reaction