Stoichiometry, Reaction & Composition Stoichiometry, Chemistry Help

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Stoichiometry is a sub-branch of chemistry that deals with the study of relative quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions. With the balanced chemical reaction, the relations among quantities of products and reactants form a ratio of whole numbers. I.e. in a reaction that is caused formation of ammonia (NH3) has exactly one molecule of nitrogen (N2) and three molecules of hydrogen (H2) and that is caused to produce two molecules of NH3:

N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3

Stoichiometry may be used to calculate quantities such as the product’s amount that may be produced with given reactants and percent. Stoichiometry calculations can predict how components and elements diluted in a standard solution react in experimental conditions. This branch of chemistry is founded on the law of conservation of mass: the mass of the products equals the mass of the reactants.

Reaction Stoichiometry : It describes the quantitative relationships between substances as they take participate in chemical reactions. For example above, reaction stoichiometry describes the 1:3:2 ratios of molecules of nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia.

Composition Stoichiometry: It describes the quantitative (mass) relationships between elements in compounds. For example, composition stoichiometry describes the nitrogen to hydrogen Or mass relationship in the compound ammonia: for example one mole of nitrogren and three moles of hydrogen are in each mole of ammonia.

A stoichiometric ratio or amount of a reagent is the ratio or amount where, assuming that the reaction proceeds to completion:

  • All reagents are consumed,
  • There is no shortfall of reagent, and
  • No residues remain.

  • Gas stoichiometry deals with reactions among gases, where the gases are at a known pressure, temperature, and volume, and can be assumed to be ideal gases. For gases, the volume ratio is ideally the same by the ideal gas law, but for mass ratio of a single reaction has to be calculated from the molecular masses of the products and reactants. In practice, due to the existence of molar masses, isotopes are used instead when calculating the mass ratio.

    Simply put, stoichiometry is the mathematical ability to calculate a theoretical amount (in mass, volume, moles etc.) using the relationship between compounds, the mole ratio, from any balanced chemical equation.

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