Hydrogen, Hydrogen Isotopes and It's Properties, Chemistry Help

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Hydrogen is gaseous element, first element in periodic table.

Symbol: H

Weight: 1.00794, Density 0.08988 grams/liter at STP; M.P. -259.14°C; B.P. -252.87°C; Valence +1

Atmospheric hydrogen - H is a mixture of three isotopes namely protium, deuterium, tritium.

The most common isotope is protium with mass no.1 and atomic mass 1.007822 and the protium nucleus is a proton. The other isotope of hydrogen is deuterium with mass no 2 and atomic mass 2.0140 it is called heavy hydrogen. It is known as by chemical formulas by the symbol D. The deuterium nucleus or ion is also called the deuteron. It is formed with proton and neutron. In atmospheric hydrogen consists these two isotopes in proportion of about 1 atom deuterium and 6700 atoms of protium. .

Deuterium oxide D2O also known as heavy water is present in ordinary water; the concentration of D2O is increased by electrolysis of the water. The M.P. (3.79°C), B.P. (101.4°C), and specific gravity (1.107 at 25°C) of D2O are higher than ordinary water. Deuterium oxide is also used as a moderator in nuclear reactors.

Tritium (atomic mass 3.016, mass no. 3), a other hydrogen isotope, it is a radioactive gas with a half-life of about 12 1/4 years; Tritium is often known in chemical formulas by the symbol T. Tritium is produced in nuclear reactors and used in the , in luminous paints, hydrogen bomb, and as a tracer. The tritium nucleus or ion is called the triton; Triton consists of a proton and two neutrons. Tritium oxide (T2O) has a M.P. (4.49°C) higher than that of D2O.

Besides being a mixture of these three isotopes, hydrogen is a mixture of two forms, ortho form and a para form, which differ in their nuclear and electronic spins. At room temperature atmospheric hydrogen is about 3/4 ortho-hydrogen and 1/4 para-hydrogen. The two forms differ slightly in their physical properties.

Properties of Hydrogen

In ordinary conditions hydrogen is a odorless, colorless, tasteless gas that is only slightly soluble in water; it is known as the least dense gas. Hydrogen is the first element in Group 1 of the periodic table. Ordinary hydrogen gas is form up of diatomic molecules (H2) and it reacts with oxygen to form water (H2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A jet of hydrogen burns in air with a hot blue flame. The flame produced by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases is extremely hot and is used in welding and to melt quartz and certain glasses. Hydrogen gas is highly flammable; it forms easily ignited explosive mixtures with oxygen or with air.

Hydrogen has a affinity for oxygen and hydrogen is a powerful reducing agent. When hydrogen reacts with nitrogen and it forms ammonia. With the halogens hydrogen forms compounds i.e. hydrogen halides that are strongly acidic in water solution. With sulfur reaction it forms hydrogen sulfide (H2S), it is a colorless gas with an odor like rotten eggs; with react of sulfur and oxygen it forms sulfuric acid. It combines with several metals to form metal hydrides such as calcium hydride. Combined with carbon (and usually other elements) it is a constituent of many organic compounds, such as carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, , fats, proteins, oils, and organic acids and bases.

It is possible for hydrogen to exhibit the properties of a metal for example electrical conductivity. Although researchers have been able to squeeze hydrogen into crystalline solid states and liquid states through applications of intense heat, pressure and cold.

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