The Procedure Of Design
The process of design that encompasses design of mechanical systems or machines consists of a few steps to be followed in order. The discrete steps are as:
The first step is to recognize the requirement that is what the requirement to be fulfilled is. All designs need that the requirement should be properly and fully described and defined. This description might become the statement of the problem:
This step occupies identifying all possible solutions and making a list. In case of mechanical design the step may consist in choosing mechanism or group of mechanisms such will result in desired motion or group of motions and transmission of forces.
The best solution is chosen based upon experience and knowledge. The chosen solution is analyzed to notice the effects of all factors. In case of mechanical design whether every element is needed to transmit some force and have definite motion will be analyzed to find out force to be transmitted and size of element. The motion also will be analyzed.
The analysis will be based upon significant information of capacity of material, which will, be utilized to transmit force. The capacity might be explained in terms of forces, strains, stresses; type of stress or forces, environment whether the machine or element has to work, the material is chosen upon the basis of such capacities, and also its capability to undergo process of manufacture.
The limits or permissible values of forces or stresses are immediately identified if material is chosen. The background knowledge of stress analysis or relationship between deformations and forces are used to find out the sizes that could be cross-sectional dimension, length and changes in cross-sectional dimensions. At this step connections among the elements may enter also the considerations.
Revision and Modification
The availability of material in specific shapes and sizes, and joining of elements for perfect fit has resulted into standardizations. That standard is available from government organizations, professional institutions, and manufactures of standard elements. Hence, the results of calculations are to be checked against information from the relevant source or sources. The dimension might be modified to suit standard.
After a design process has been finished the outcome may be a system that would satisfy the requirements as described in the first step. If the design is mechanical, the shape and sizes of and connection among the elements would have been decided. The materials would be identified and the type of manufacturing methods would have been arrived at. A whole report on the problem has to be prepared. The mechanical designs are best reported by drawings and standard methods for indicating material and special manufacturing process on the drawing are identified practices.