1. Direct communication across unit & firm boundaries that ignoring chain of command.
2. Cross-unit team structures.
3. Outsourcing and downsizing.
4. Strategic alliances along with customers, competitors and collaborators all at the same time.
5. Close coordination among firms like JIT systems and information sharing (open computer systems).
6. Across the board contact with customers, not only official boundary spanners.
Figure: Organisational Design - The dashed arrows mean, "Creates the need for", while the solid arrows mean "causes" or "enables".
Therefore, organisational design is the procedure of systematic & logical grouping of activities, delegation of authority and responsibility and establishing working relationships which will enable both the organization and employee to realize their mutual goals.