Microcomputers are small computers and it may carry out all the basic functions of a digital computer. Microprocessor is the central processing unit (CPU) of microcomputers and it is typically fabricated on a single integrated circuit. Microcontrollers are single chip processor, which contains all of the basic components of a digital computer as Read and Write Memory (RAM), Read Only Memory (ROM), CPU, etc. Highly complex circuits are densely packed on a single chip by using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI) technologies.
Now microprocessors are one of the main advances in the computer industry and others such as communication, control and automobile industries. Here our intention is to introduce to the fascinating world of microprocessor: its integrated circuit components, how they may be programmed for a particular application, etc. To do this, we will study the 8085 microprocessor family in detail and shall also introduce you to other advanced microprocessor families as 80286, 80386, etc.
After study this unit, you should be able to
- tabulate the basic components of a computer, describe 8085 microprocessor architecture and be able to write assembly language programs,
- describe 8253/8254 Programmable Interval Timer, 8255 Programmable
- Peripheral Interface (PPI) and their operating modes,
- describe the purpose of DAC/ADC and describe some commonly used circuits for ADC/DAC,
- understand the standards for serial data communication among the Data Communication Equipment (DCE) and Data Terminal Equipment (DTE),
- describe the 3051 single-chip microcontroller architecture and instruction sets, and
- Explain the basic features and improvements made in recent microprocessors like 8086, 80286, TMS-320C24, etc.