Some applications of conductors are given here. Conductors are utilized to deliver energy from the source to the load, to make antennas, connectors. They are utilized in all types of transmission lines in capacitors, in circuit breakers, PCB layouts, in switches in fuses, in bread boards, in batteries, ICs, etc.
Some significant properties of conductors are given below:
1. Conductor has small resistance.
2. Voltage drop across a conductor is small, the power dissipation is small.
3. If the resistance of the conductor is small, current is high.
4. Free electrons concentration is extremely large in good conductors (≈ 1028 electrons/m3).
5. Conductors do not absorb electromagnetic energy. They reflect electromagnetic waves.
6. Their temperature coefficient is positive.
7. Electric and magnetic field does not exist in a conductor.
8. Depth of penetration of electromagnetic waves is zero in conductors.
9. The size of the round conductor wire in terms of its diameter is defined by gage members.
10. If gage number is high, the diameter is small and for a thin wire, the resistance is high for given length.
11. Conductors always have one electron in outer orbit.